Chapter 14 Review

OpenStax and Lumen Learning

CHAPTER SUMMARY 14.1

State Power and Delegation

The power structure of government established in the Articles of Confederation was rebalanced in the Constitution to ensure that both the central and the regional governments had some degree of authority and autonomy. Federal and state governments have managed to work out sharing power throughout history, with the federal government often using fiscal policy to encourage compliance from the states. The taxing power of local governments means they face unique pressures during economic downturns.

RECALL KEY TERMS

CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING

THINK CRITICALLY

Under the Articles of Confederation, the federal government was quite weak relative to the states. What changes were made to strengthen the role of the federal government under the U.S. Constitution?


CHAPTER SUMMARY 14.2

State Political Culture

Daniel Elazar’s theory argues, based on the cultural values of early immigrants who settled in different regions of the country, the United States is made up of three component cultures: individualistic, moralistic, and traditionalistic. Each culture views aspects of government and politics differently, particularly the nature and purpose of political competition and the role of citizen participation. Critics of the theory say the arrival of recent immigrants from other parts of the globe, the divide between urban and rural lifestyles in a particular state, and new patterns of diffusion and settlement across states and regions mean the theory is no longer an entirely accurate description of reality.

RECALL KEY TERMS

CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING

THINK CRITICALLY


CHAPTER SUMMARY 14.3

Governors and State Legislatures

Governors are called upon to work with the state legislature in the lawmaking process, to be the head of their political party, and to be the chief spokespersons and crisis managers for their states. State constitutions or state statutes give many governors the power to veto legislation, pardon or commute the sentences of convicted criminals, author state budgets, and call a special session of the state legislature. The three key functions performed by state legislatures are lawmaking, constituency service, and oversight. Legislatures differ in size, diversity, party composition, and level of professionalism across the fifty states.

RECALL KEY TERMS

CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING

THINK CRITICALLY

Which branch would you consider to be closest to the people? Why?


CHAPTER SUMMARY 14.4

County and City Government

County governments can adopt the commission system, the council-administrator system, and the council-elected executive system of government to carry out their functions, which usually include the work of the sheriff, the county clerk, the assessor, the treasurer, the coroner, and the engineer. Municipal governments can use the mayor-council system or the council-manager system and manage services such as the provision of clean water, park maintenance, and local law enforcement. Cities and counties both rely on tax revenues, especially property taxes, to fund their provision of services.

RECALL KEY TERMS

CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING

THINK CRITICALLY

What are the advantages and disadvantages of having so many levels of subnational governments in the United States? Explain.

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