32 Management and Leadership in Today’s Organizations MERGED — Pressbooks into OpenStax



(Credit: Urs Rüegsegger / flickr / Public Domain Mark 1.0)


Learning Outcomes

After reading this chapter, you should be able to answer these questions:

  • What is the role of management?
  • What are the four types of planning?
  • What are the primary functions of managers in organizing activities?
  • How do leadership styles influence a corporate culture?
  • How do organizations control activities?
  • What roles do managers take on in different organizational settings?
  • What set of managerial skills is necessary for managerial success?
  • What trends will affect management in the future?

Jalem Getz

BuyCostumes.com/Wantable, Inc. You might ask, “How does one come to work in the world of online costume retail?” A passion for holiday make-believe and dress-up? A keen eye for business potential? The drive to capitalize on a competitive advantage? If you’re Jalem Getz, the answer is: all of these. Getz is the founder of BuyCostumes.com, an online costume and accessories retailer and, most recently, founder of Wantable, Inc.

As with most businesses, BuyCostumes.com and Wantable, Inc., are the result of careful planning. BuyCostumes.com was a response to what Getz saw as inherent flaws of resource allocation with the business model of brick-and-mortar costume retailers. “As a brick-and-mortar business, we were the gypsies of retail, which caused scale problems since we started over every year. Because we only were in a mall four or five months a year, locations we had one year often were rented the next.

So we had to find new stores to rent each year. Then we had to find management to run the stores, and train employees to staff them. We also had to shuffle the inventory around each year to stock them. It’s almost impossible to grow a business like that.” By turning to the internet, however, Getz was able to bypass all of those issues. The virtual “space” was available year-round, and inventory and staff were centralized in a single warehouse location.

Getz grew BuyCostumes.com to a multimillion-dollar business before selling it, with a staff of about 600 employees during its peak season. Before Getz sold the business, it carried over 10,000 Halloween items and had upwards of 20 million visitors each holiday season. In one year, it shipped over 1 million costumes across the world, including 45 countries outside the United States. “We say that our goal is to ensure that anytime anyone buys a costume anywhere in the world, it will be from BuyCostumes.com. And, although to some extent we’re kidding, we’re also very serious.”

To keep track of all this action, Getz mixed ideals of a strong work ethic, a willingness to take risks, and an interest in having fun while making a profit. Given the size of the company, BuyCostumes.com organized its management to help keep the company focused on the corporate goal of continued growth. For Getz, his role in the management hierarchy was to “hire excellent people who have similar goals and who are motivated the same way I am and then put them in a position where they can succeed.” Beyond that? “Inspect what you expect.” This maxim is a concise way to say that, although he does not believe

in constantly watching over his employees’ shoulders, he does believe in periodically checking in with them to ensure that both he and they are on the same page. By considering the process of management a conversation between himself and his employees, he exhibits a strong participative leadership style.

Getz will joke that he wishes he could say that he spent his childhood dreaming of the day he could work with costumes. The truth, though, is that he saw an opportunity, grabbed it, and hasn’t let go since. And sometimes, especially during Halloween, truth can be even more satisfying than fiction.

After selling BuyCostumes.com, Getz experimented with other digital start-ups but quickly realized he worked best with retail. In 2012, he launched Wantable, Inc., an online personal shopping service. In its first four years, Getz led the company to exceed 28,000% annual revenue growth and to hire more than 100 employees. It became profitable in 2016 and looked to double its income the following year.

Sources: “About Wantable,” http://blog.wantable.com, accessed October 27, 2017; “Wantable Surpasses 100 Employees,” http://www.prweb.com, April 3, 2017; Jeff Engel, “Jalem Getz’s Latest Retail Startup Wantable Targets Women, Fast Growth,” https://www.xconomy.com, April 21, 2014.

Today’s companies rely on managers to guide daily operations using human, technological, financial, and other resources to create a competitive advantage. For many beginning business students, being in “management” is an attractive but somewhat vague future goal. This vagueness is due in part to an incomplete

understanding of what managers do and how they contribute to organizational success or failure. This chapter introduces the basic functions of management and the skills managers need to drive an organization toward its goals. We will also discuss how leadership styles influence a corporate culture and


The Role of Management

1. What is the role of management?

Management is the process of guiding the development, maintenance, and allocation of resources to attain organizational goals. Managers are the people in the organization responsible for developing and carrying out this management process. Management is dynamic by nature and evolves to meet needs and constraints in the organization’s internal and external environments. In a global marketplace where the rate of change is rapidly increasing, flexibility and adaptability are crucial to the managerial process. This process is based in four key functional areas of the organization: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Although these activities are discussed separately in the chapter, they actually form a tightly integrated cycle of thoughts and actions.

From this perspective, the managerial process can be described as (1) anticipating potential problems or opportunities and

designing plans to deal with them, (2) coordinating and allocating the resources needed to implement plans, (3) guiding personnel through the implementation process, and (4) reviewing results and making any necessary changes. This last stage provides information to be used in ongoing planning efforts, and thus the cycle starts over again. The four functions are highly interdependent, with managers often performing more than one of them at a time and each of them many times over the course of a normal workday.

To encourage greater collaboration between employees, Apple is investing $5 billion in the construction of its new Cupertino, CA, headquarters, which is replacing several buildings the company had outgrown. Most headquarters-based employees of Apple now share not only the same office space, but also the same technology tools and corporate culture. How do Apple’s planning and organizing decisions increase organizational efficiency and effectiveness? (Credit: Tom Pavel / flickr/ Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC BY 2.0))

A photograph shows a large building made up of mostly windows, with a security gate out front.

The four management functions can help managers increase organizational efficiency and effectiveness.

Efficiency is using the least possible amount of resources to get work done, whereas effectiveness is the ability to produce a desired result. Managers need to be both efficient and effective in order to achieve organizational goals. For example in 2016, Delta, one of the most efficient network U.S. airlines, operated at revenue of

12.15 cents per seat-mile, which is the revenue the company makes on one seat (occupied or not) the distance of one mile. No other airline came close to operating this efficiently except Southwest, which flew seats that produced 12.51 cents a mile, the best performance of all U.S. airlines.

Source: US DOT Form 41 via BTS, Schedules P12 and T2.

There are many ways that airlines can manage to produce higher revenue per seat-mile. For instance, they can raise ticket prices, fill more of their seats, operate more efficient aircraft that utilize less fuel, or negotiate favorable salaries with their employees. While efficiency and effectiveness are sometimes lauded by investors, airlines also need to account for customer satisfaction, which can mean extra costs.

Matthew C. Klein, “Traders Appreciate United Airlines Commitment to ‘Cost Efficiency Targets’,” Financial Times, https://ftalphaville.ft.com, April 10, 2017; Robert Silk, “UPDATED: JetBlue Founder Neeleman Working on New Company,” Travel Weekly, http://www.travelweekly.com, July 31, 2017; Karsten Strauss, “When CEOs Get Demoted (By Companies They Founded),” Forbes, https://www.forbes.com, March 28, 2013.

To meet the demands of rapid growth, Skechers hired a new chief financial officer, John Vandemore, which allowed their existing CFO (David Weinberg) to concentrate on international expansion. Skechers CEO Robert Greenberg commented: “As international now represents more than 50 percent of our total business, we must continue to ramp up operations and

infrastructure to meet the demand. David (Weinberg) understands how to do it the right way at the right speed to maintain our forward momentum. With John (Vandemore) handling CFO responsibilities, David will now have the bandwidth to travel and find opportunities to maximize our efficiencies around the globe.”

As these examples and (Figure) show, good management uses the four management functions to increase a company’s efficiency and effectiveness, which leads to the accomplishment of organizational goals and objectives. Let’s look more closely at what each of the management functions entails.


  • Set objectives and state mission
  • Examine alternatives
  • Determine needed resources
  • Create strategies to reach objectives


  • Which results inGood management consists of these four activities:What Managers Do and Why
    Lead and motivate employees to accomplish organizational goals
  • Communicate with employees
  • Resolve conflicts
  • Manage change


  • Design jobs and specify tasks
  • Create organizational structure
  • Staff positions
  • Coordinate work activities
  • Set policies and procedures
  • Allocate resources



  • Measure performance
  • Compare performance to standards
  • Take necessary action to improve performance


Leads to


Organizational efficiency and effectiveness


Leads to

  • Define the term management.
  • What are the four key functions of managers?
  • What is the difference between efficiency and effectiveness?

Summary of Learning Outcomes

GlossaryeffectivenessThe ability to produce the desired result or good.efficiencyUsing the least amount of resources to accomplish the organization’s goals.managementThe process of guiding the development, maintenance, and allocation of resources to attain organizational goals.



  • What are the four types of planning?

Planning begins by anticipating potential problems or opportunities the organization may encounter. Managers then design strategies to solve current problems, prevent future problems, or take advantage of opportunities. These strategies serve as the foundation for goals, objectives, policies, and procedures. Put simply, planning is deciding what needs to be done to achieve organizational objectives, identifying when and how it will be done, and determining who should do it. Effective planning requires extensive information about the external business environment in which the firm competes, as well as its internal environment.

There are four basic types of planning: strategic, tactical, operational, and contingency. Most of us use these different types of planning in our own lives. Some plans are very broad and long term (more strategic in nature), such as planning to

attend graduate school after earning a bachelor’s degree. Some plans are much more specific and short term (more operational in nature), such as planning to spend a few hours in the library this weekend. Your short-term plans support your long-term plans. If you study now, you have a better

chance of achieving some future goal, such as getting a job interview or attending graduate school. Like you, organizations tailor their plans to meet the requirements of future situations or events. A summary of the four types of planning appears in (Figure).

Strategic planning involves creating long-range (one to five years), broad goals for the organization and determining what resources will be needed to accomplish those goals. An evaluation of external environmental factors such as economic, technological, and social issues is critical to successful strategic planning. Strategic plans, such as the organization’s long-term mission, are formulated by top-level managers and put into action at lower levels in the organization. For example, when Mickey Drexler took over as CEO of J.Crew, the company was floundering and had been recently purchased by a private equity group. One of Drexler’s first moves was to change the strategic direction of the company by moving it out of the crowded trend- following retail segment, where it was competing with stores such as Gap, American Eagle, and Abercrombie and back into the preppie, luxury segment where it began. Rather than trying to sell abundant inventory to a mass market, J.Crew cultivated scarcity, making sure items sold out early rather than hit the sale rack later in the season. The company also limited the number of new stores it opened during a two-year span but planned to double the number of stores in the next five to six years. Drexler

led the company through public offerings and back to private ownership before bringing on a new CEO in 2017. He remained chairman with ownership in the company.

Christina Cheddar, “Famed Retailer Mickey Drexler Leaving CEO Job at J. Crew,” CNBC, https://www.cnbc.com, June 5, 2017; John Kell, “J. Crew CEO Mickey Drexler Steps Down,” Fortune, http://fortune.com, June 5, 2017; Vanessa Friedman and Julie Creswell, “Mickey Drexler Steps Down as Chief of J. Crew, Ending an Era,” The New York Times, https://www.nytimes.com, June 5, 2017; Steven Solomon, “J. Crew Struggles with Its ‘Great Man’ Dilemma,” The New York Times, https://www.nytimes.com, June 10, 2015; Julia Boorstin. “Mickey Drexler’s Second Coming,” Fortune, May 2, 2005, p. 101.

Types of Planning

Type of Planning

Time Frame

Level ofExtent of Management coverage

Purpose and Goal

Breadth of Content



Top management (CEO, vice presidents, directors, division heads)


External environment and entire organization


Establish mission and long-term goals


Broad and general


than 1 year



business units


mid-range goals for implementation

Implement and

More specific



When an event


Top and

and functional divisions


activate specific objectives


and concrete



occurs or a situation demands

middle management

environment and entire organization

unforeseen challenges and opportunities

broad and detailed

Changing Strategy Can Change Your Opportunities

Since 1949, Gordon Bernard, a printing company in Milford, Ohio, focused exclusively on printing fundraising calendars for a variety of clients, such as cities, schools, scout troops, and fire departments. The company’s approximately 4,000 clients nationwide, 10 percent of which have been with the company for over 50 years, generated $4 million in revenue in 2006. In order to better serve customers, company president Bob Sherman

invested $650,000 in the purchase of a Xerox iGEN3 digital color press so that the company could produce in-house a part of its calendar product that had been outsourced. The high- tech press did more for the company than simply reduce costs, however.

The new press gave the company four-color printing capability for the first time in its history, and that led the management of Gordon Bernard to rethink the company’s strategy. The machine excels at short runs, which means that small batches of an item can be printed at a much lower cost than on a traditional press. The press also has the capability to customize every piece that rolls off the machine. For example, if a pet store wants to print 3,000 direct mail pieces, every single postcard can have a personalized greeting and text. Pieces targeted to bird owners can feature pictures of birds, whereas the dog owners’ brochure will contain dog pictures. Text and pictures can be personalized for owners of show dogs or overweight cats or iguanas.

Bob Sherman created a new division to oversee the implementation, training, marketing, and creative aspects of the new production process. The company even changed how it thinks of itself. No longer does Gordon Bernard consider itself a printing firm, but as a marketing services company with printing capabilities. That change in strategy prompted the company to seek more commercial work. For example, Gordon Bernard will help clients of its new services develop customer databases from their existing information and identify additional customer information they might want to collect. Even though calendar sales accounted for 97 percent of the firm’s revenues, that

business is seasonal and leaves large amounts of unused capacity in the off-peak periods. Managers’ goals for the new division were to contribute 10 percent of total revenue within a couple years of purchase.

Critical Thinking Questions

  • What type of planning do you think Gordon Bernard is doing?
  • Because Gordon Bernard’s strategy changed only after it purchased the iGEN3, does the shift constitute strategic planning? Why or why not?

Sources:GBCFundraisingCalendars, http://www.gordonbernard.com/, accessed September 15, 2017; Gordon Bernard Co Inc., https://www.manta.com, accessed September 15, 2017; Karen Bells, “Hot Off the Press; Milford Printer Spends Big to Fill New Niche,” Cincinnati Business Courier, July 15, 2005, pp. 17–18.

An organization’s mission is formalized in its mission statement, a document that states the purpose of the organization and its reason for existing. For example, Twitter’s mission statement formalizes both concepts while staying within its self-imposed character limit; see (Figure).

Sources: “About” and “Our Values,” https://about.twitter.com, accessed October 30, 2017; Justin Fox, “Why Twitter’s Mission Statement Matters,” Harvard Business Review, https://hbr.org, accessed October 30, 2017; Jeff Bercovici, “Mission Critical: Twitter’s New ‘Strategy Statement’ Reflects Shifting Priorities,” Inc., https://www.inc.com, accessed October 30, 2017.

Twitter’s Mission, Values, and Strategy

Mission: Give everyone the power to create and share ideas and information instantly, without barriers.


Values: We believe in free expression and think every voice has the power to impact the world.


Strategy: Reach the largest daily audience in the world by connecting everyone to their world via our information sharing and distribution platform products and be one of the top revenue generating Internet companies in the world.


Twitter combines its mission and values to bring together a diverse workforce worldwide to fulfill its strategy.


The 3 Parts of a Company Mission Statement:

  • Purpose
  • Value
  • Action

In all organizations, plans and goals at the tactical and operational levels should clearly support the organization’s mission statement.

Tactical planning begins the implementation of strategic plans. Tactical plans have a shorter (less than one year) time frame than strategic plans and more specific objectives designed to support the broader strategic goals. Tactical plans begin to address issues of coordinating and allocating resources to different parts of the organization.

Under Mickey Drexler, many new tactical plans were implemented to support J.Crew’s new strategic direction. For example, he severely limited the number of stores opened each year, with only nine new openings in the first two years of his tenure (he closed seven). Instead, he invested the company’s resources in developing a product line that communicated J.Crew’s new strategic direction. Drexler dumped trend-driven apparel because it did not meet the company’s new image. He even cut some million-dollar volume items. In their

place, he created limited editions of a handful of garments that he thought would be popular, many of which fell into his new luxury strategy. For example, J.Crew now buys shoes directly from the same shoe manufacturers that produce footwear for designers such as Prada and Gucci. In general, J.Crew drastically tightened inventories, a move designed to keep reams of clothes from ending up on sale racks and to break its shoppers’ habit of waiting for discounts.

This part of the plan generated great results. Prior to Drexler’s change in strategy, half of J.Crew’s clothing sold at a discount. After implementing tactical plans aimed to change that situation, only a small percentage does. The shift to limited editions and tighter inventory controls has not reduced the amount of new merchandise, however. On the contrary, Drexler created a J.Crew bridal collection, a jewelry line, and Crew Cuts, a line of kids’ clothing. The results of Drexler’s tactical plans were impressive. J.Crew saw same-store sales rise 17 percent in one year.

Boorstin, “Mickey Drexler’s Second Coming.”

Operational planning creates specific standards, methods, policies, and procedures that are used in specific functional areas of the organization. Operational objectives are current, narrow, and resource focused. They are designed to help guide and control the implementation of tactical plans. In an industry where new versions of software have widely varying development cycles, Autodesk, maker of software tools for designers and engineers, implemented new operational plans that dramatically increased profits. Former CEO Carol Bartz shifted the company away from the erratic release schedule it had been keeping to regular, annual software releases. By releasing upgrades on a defined and predictable schedule, the company is able to use annual subscription pricing, which is more affordable for small and midsize companies. The new schedule keeps Autodesk customers on the most recent versions of popular software and has resulted in an overall increase in profitability.

Hallie Busta, “Q&A: Former Autodesk CEO Carol Bartz on the Past, Present and Future of Construction Tech,” http://www.constructiondive.com, March 29, 2017; David Bank, “Autodesk Stages Revival,” Wall Street Journal, August 19, 2005, p. B3.

The key to effective planning is anticipating future situations and events. Yet even the best-prepared organization must sometimes cope with unforeseen circumstances, such as a natural disaster, an act of terrorism, or a radical new technology. Therefore, many companies have developed contingency plans that identify alternative courses of action for very unusual or crisis situations.

The contingency plan typically stipulates the chain of command, standard operating procedures, and communication channels the organization will use during an emergency.

An effective contingency plan can make or break a company. Consider the example of Marriott Hotels in Puerto Rico. Anticipating Hurricane Maria in 2017, workers at the San Juan Marriott had to shift from their regular duties to handling the needs of not only customers, but everyone who needed assistance in the wake of the hurricane that devastated the island. A contingency plan and training for events such as this were a key part of managing this crisis.

Richard Levick, “Crisis Contingency Planning, Risk Assessment Vitally Important in Today’s Climate,” Forbes, https://www.forbes.com, November 16, 2017.

The company achieved its goal of being able to cater to guest and general needs due to planning and training while having a contingency plan in place. One guest commented on TripAdvisor, “Could not believe how friendly, helpful & responsive staff were even during height of hurricane. Special thanks to Eydie, Juan, Jock, Ashley and security Luis. They kept us safe & were exemplary. Will always stay at Marriott from now on.”

Trip Advisor website, https://www.tripadvisor.com/ ShowUserReviews-

g147320-d149920-r526998919-San_Juan_Marriott_Resort_Stel laris_Casino-San_Juan_Puerto_Rico.html, accessed November 15, 2017.

Within one month after Hurricane Maria hit, operations were back to normal at the San Juan Marriott.

San Juan Marriott website, http://www.marriott.com/hotels/ travel/sjupr-san-juan-marriott-resort-and-stellaris-casino/, accessed November 15, 2017.

Boeing Takes Off in New Direction

Boeing and Airbus have been locked in fierce competition for the world’s airplane business for decades. What characterized most of that time period was a focus on designing larger and larger airplanes. Since

its development in the 1970s, Boeing revamped its pioneering B747 numerous times and at one time boasted over 1,300 of the jumbo jets in operation around the world. As part of this head-to-head competition for bragging rights to the largest jet in the air, Boeing was working on a 747X, a super-jumbo jet designed to hold 525 passengers. In what seemed to be an abrupt change of strategy, Boeing conceded the super-jumbo segment of the market to its rival and killed plans for the 747X. Instead of trying to create a plane with more seats, Boeing engineers began developing planes to fly fewer people at higher speeds. Then, as the rising price of jet fuel surpassed the airlines’ ability to easily absorb its increasing cost, Boeing again changed its strategy, this time focusing on developing jets that use less fuel. In the end, Boeing’s strategy changed from plane capacity to jet efficiency.

The new strategy required new plans. Boeing managers identified gaps in Airbus’s product line and immediately set out to develop planes to fill them. Boeing announced a new

787 “Dreamliner,” which boasted better fuel efficiency thanks to lightweight composite materials and next-generation engine design. Even though the 787 has less than half the seating of the Airbus A380, Boeing’s Dreamliner is a hit in the market. Orders for the new plane have been stronger than anticipated, forcing Boeing to change its production plans to meet demand. The company decided to accelerate its planned 787 production rate buildup, rolling out a new jet every two days or so.

Airbus was not so lucky. The company spent so much time and energy on its super-jumbo that its A350 (the plane designed to compete with Boeing’s 787) suffered. The 787 uses 15 percent less fuel than the A350, can fly nonstop from Beijing to New York, and is one of the fastest-selling commercial planes ever.

The battle for airline supremacy continues to switch between the two global giants. In 2017, Boeing beat Airbus on commercial jet orders at the Paris Air Show and continues to push forward. A spokesperson has hinted at a hybrid fuselage for midrange planes, which could carry passengers farther at lower costs. If successful, Boeing will regain market share lost to the Airbus A321.

Critical Thinking Questions

  • What seems to be the difference in how Boeing and Airbus have approached planning?
  • Do you think Airbus should change its strategic plans to meet Boeing’s or stick with its current plans? Explain.

Sources: Gillian Rich, “Why Boeing’s Paris Air Show Orders Are ‘Staggering’,” http://www.investors.com, June 22, 2017; Jon Ostrower, “Boeing vs. Airbus: A New Winner Emerges at the Paris Air Show,” CNN, http://money.cnn.com, June 22, 2017; Gillian Rich, “’Hybrid’ Design for New Boeing Midrange Jet Could Hit This Sweet Spot,” http://www.investors.com, June 20, 2017; Alex Taylor, III, “Boeing Finally Has a Flight Plan,” Fortune, June 13, 2005, pp. 27–28; J. Lynn Lundsford and Rod Stone, “Boeing Net Falls, but Outlook Is Rosy,” The Wall Street Journal, July 28, 2005, p. A3; Carol Matlack and Stanley Holmes, “Why Airbus Is Losing Altitude,” Business Week, June 20, 2005, p. 20; J. Lynn Lunsford, “UPS to Buy 8 Boeing 747s, Lifting Jet’s Prospects,” The Wall Street Journal, September 18, 2005, p. A2; “Airbus to Launch A350 Jet in October,” Xinhua News Agency, September 14, 2005, online; “Boeing Plans Major Change,” Performance Materials, April 30, 2001, p. 5.

  • What is the purpose of planning, and what is needed to do it effectively?
  • Identify the unique characteristics of each type of planning.

Summary of Learning Outcomes

Strategic planning

standards, methods, policies, and procedures that are used in specific functional areas of the organization. Contingency plans identify alternative courses of action for very unusual or crisis situations.


contingency plans

Plans that identify alternative courses of action for very unusual or crisis situations; typically stipulate the chain of command, standard operating procedures, and communication channels the organization will use during an emergency.


An organization’s purpose and reason for existing; its long- term goals.

mission statement

A formal document that states an organization’s purpose and reason for existing and describes its basic philosophy. operational planning

The process of creating specific standards, methods, policies, and procedures that are used in specific functional areas of the organization; helps guide and control the implementation of tactical plans.


The process of deciding what needs to be done to achieve organizational objectives; identifying when and how it will be done; and determining who should do it.

strategic planningThe process of creating long-range (one to five years), broad goals for the organization and determining what resources will be needed to accomplish those goals. tactical planningThe process of beginning to implement a strategic plan by addressing issues of coordination and allocating resources to different parts of the organization; has a shorter time frame (less than one year) and more specific objectives than strategic planning.



  • What are the primary functions of managers in organizing activities?

A second key function of managers is organizing, which is the process of coordinating and allocating a firm’s resources in order to carry out its plans. Organizing includes developing a structure for the people, positions, departments, and activities within the firm. Managers can arrange the structural elements of the firm to maximize the flow of information and the efficiency of work processes. They accomplish this by doing the following:

  • Dividing up tasks (division of labor)
  • Grouping jobs and employees (departmentalization)
  • Assigning authority and responsibilities (delegation)

These and other elements of organizational structure are discussed in detail elsewhere. In this chapter, however, you

should understand the three levels of a managerial hierarchy. This hierarchy is often depicted as a pyramid, as in (Figure). The fewest managers are found at the highest level of the pyramid. Called top management, they are the small group of people at the head of the organization (such as the CEO, president, and vice president). Top-level managers develop strategic plans and address long-range issues such as which industries to compete in, how to capture market share, and what to do with profits. These managers design and approve the firm’s basic policies and represent the firm to other organizations. They also define the company’s values and ethics and thus set the tone for employee standards of behavior. For example, Jack Welch, the former CEO of General Electric, was a role model for his managers and executives. Admirers say that he had an extraordinary capacity to inspire hundreds of thousands of people in many countries and he could change the direction of a huge organization like General Electric as if it were a small firm. Following his leadership, General Electric’s executives turned in impressive results. During his tenure, General Electric’s average annual shareholder return was 25 percent.

Jeffery Garten, “Jack Welch: A Role Model for Today’s CEO,”

Business Week (September 10, 2001).

The Managerial Pyramid

(Attribution: Copyright Rice University, OpenStax, under CC BY 4.0 license.)


The second and third tiers of the hierarchy are called middle management and supervisory (first-line) management, respectively. Middle managers (such as division heads, departmental managers, and regional sales managers) are responsible for beginning the implementation of strategic plans. They design and carry out tactical plans in specific areas of the company. They begin the process of allocating resources to meet organizational goals, and they oversee supervisory managers throughout the firm. Supervisors, the most numerous of the managers, are at the bottom of the managerial pyramid. These managers design and carry out operational plans for the ongoing daily activities of the firm. They spend a great deal of their time

guiding and motivating the employees who actually produce the goods and services.

  • Explain the managerial function of organizing.
  • What is the managerial pyramid?

Summary of Learning Outcomes

Glossarymiddle managementManagers who design and carry out tactical plans in specific areas of the company.organizingThe process of coordinating and allocating a firm’s resources in order to carry out its plans. supervisory (first-line) managementManagers who design and carry out operation plans for the ongoing daily activities of the firm.

top managementThe highest level of managers; includes CEOs, presidents, and vice presidents, who develop strategic plans.


Leading, Guiding, and Motivating Others

  • How do leadership styles influence a corporate culture?

Leadership, the third key management function, is the process of guiding and motivating others toward the achievement of organizational goals. A leader can be anyone in an organization, regardless of position, able to influence others to act or follow, often by their own choice. Managers are designated leaders according to the

organizational structure but may need to use negative consequences or coercion to achieve change. In the organization structure, top managers use leadership skills to set, share, and gain support for the company’s direction and strategy—mission, vision, and values, such as Jeff Bezos does at Amazon. Middle and supervisory management use leadership skills in the process of directing employees on a daily basis as the employees carry out the plans and work within the structure

created by management. Top-level leadership demonstrated by Bezos was also exhibited by Jack Welch while leading General Electric and led to many studies of his approach to leadership. Organizations, however, need strong effective leadership at all levels in order to meet goals and remain competitive.

To be effective leaders, managers must be able to influence others’ behaviors. This ability to influence others to behave in a particular way is called power. Researchers have identified five primary sources, or bases, of power:

  • Legitimate power, which is derived from an individual’s position in an organization
  • Reward power, which is derived from an individual’s control over rewards
  • Coercive power, which is derived from an individual’s ability to threaten negative outcomes
  • Expert power, which is derived from an individual’s extensive knowledge in one or more areas
  • Referent power, which is derived from an individual’s personal charisma and the respect and/or admiration the individual inspires

Many leaders use a combination of all of these sources of power to influence individuals toward goal achievement. While CEO of Procter & Gamble, A. G. Lafley got his legitimate power from his position. His reward power came from reviving the company and making the stock more valuable. Also, raises and bonus for managers who met their goals was another form of reward

power. Lafley also was not hesitant to use his coercive power. He eliminated thousands of jobs, sold underperforming brands, and killed weak product lines. With nearly 40 years of service to the company, Lafley had a unique authority when it came to P&G’s products, markets, innovations, and customers. The company’s sales doubled during his nine years as CEO, and its portfolio of brands increased from 10 to 23. He captained the purchase of Clairol, Wella AG, and IAMS, as well as the multibillion- dollar merger with Gillette. As a result, Lafley had a substantial amount of referent power. Lafley is also widely respected, not only by people at P&G, but by the general business community as well. Ann Gillin Lefever, a managing director at Lehman Brothers, said, “Lafley is a leader who is liked. His directives are very simple. He sets a strategy that everybody understands, and that is more difficult than he gets credit for.”

Ghazal Hashemipour, “A.G. Lafley: A Look Back at the Career of the Most Successful CEO in P&G History,” Chief Executive, https://chiefexecutive.net, June 13, 2016; Jennifer Reingold, “P&G Chairman A.G. Lafley Steps Down—For Good, This Time?” Fortune, http://fortune.com, June 1, 2016; Nancy Brumback, “6. A.G. Lafley, Chairman and CEO, Procter & Gamble Company,” Supermarket News, July 25, 2005.

Leadership Styles

Individuals in leadership positions tend to be relatively consistent in the way they attempt to influence the behavior of others, meaning that each individual has a tendency to react to people and situations in a particular way. This pattern of behavior is referred to as leadership style. As (Figure) shows,

leadership styles can be placed on a continuum that encompasses three distinct styles: autocratic, participative, and free rein.

Autocratic leaders are directive leaders, allowing for very little input from subordinates. These leaders prefer to make decisions and solve problems on their own and expect subordinates to implement solutions according to very specific and detailed instructions. In this leadership style, information typically flows in one direction, from manager to subordinate. The military, by necessity, is generally autocratic. When autocratic leaders treat employees with fairness and respect, they may be considered knowledgeable and decisive. But often autocrats are perceived as narrow-minded and heavy-handed in their unwillingness to share power, information, and

decision-making in the organization. The trend in organizations today is away from the directive, controlling style of the autocratic leader.

Recently ranking near the top of the Forbes list of the world’s most powerful women was Sheryl Sandberg, the COO at Facebook. As Facebook’s chief operating officer since 2008, Sandberg has helped dramatically boost revenues at the social network. Sandberg also founded Lean In, a nonprofit named after her bestselling book, to support women’s empowerment. What are Sheryl Sandberg’s primary sources of power? (Credit: JD Lasica/ Flickr/ Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC BY 2.0))

A photograph shows Sheryl Sandberg.

Instead, U.S. businesses are looking more and more for

participative leaders, meaning leaders who share decision-

making with group members and encourage discussion of issues and alternatives. Participative leaders use a democratic, consensual, consultative style. One CEO known for her participative leadership style is Meg Whitman, former CEO at Hewlett Packard. When Whitman worked at eBay, a team in the German-based operation began a promotional “treasure hunt,” launching registration pages, clues, and an hourly countdown clock. Trouble was, the launch violated eBay’s well- established corporate project-development processes.

When the treasure hunt began, 10 million contestants logged on, crashing the local servers. Rather than shut the project down, the VP in charge of the German operation allowed the promotion to be fixed and fly under the radar of corporate headquarters. Successful innovations emerged, such as an Easy Lister feature and separate registration processes for private and business sellers. When the VP shared this experience with Meg Whitman, she fostered the idea of rapid prototyping throughout the organization, which “breaks rules to get something done,” and modeled such behavior for the entire organization.

Linda Hill, Greg Brandeau, Emily Truelove, and Kent Linebeck, Collective Genius (Boston: Harvard Business Review Press, 2015).

Leadership Styles of Managers


Amount of authority held by the leader


Participative Style

Autocratic Style

(Democratic, Consensual, Consultative)


(Laissez-Faire) Style


  • Manager makes most decisions and acts in authoritative manner.
  • Manager is usually unconcerned about subordinates’ attitudes toward decisions.
  • Emphasis is on getting task accomplished.
  • Approach is used mostly by military officers and some production line supervisors.

  • Manager shares decision-making with group members and encourages teamwork.
  • Manager encourages discussion of issues and alternatives.
  • Manager is concerned about subordinates’ ideas and attitudes.
  • Manager coaches subordinates and helps coordinate efforts.
  • Approach is found in many successful organizations.

  • Manager turns over virtually all authority and control to group.
  • Members of group are presented with task and given freedom to accomplish it.
  • Approach works well with highly motivated, experienced, educated personnel.
  • Approach is found in high-tech firms, labs, and colleges.


Amount of authority held by group members


Scott Stephenson: Balancing the Duality of Ethics

Whether it’s Bernie Madoff defrauding investors, Wells Fargo having to respond to creating fake accounts in the names of real customers, or Mylan N.V. imposing huge price increases on its life-saving EpiPen, it seems like there is never a shortage of ethical issues being an important aspect of business. As shown by these examples, unethical decisions permeate different parts of the business and occur for different reasons.

In the case of Bernie Madoff, it was the greed of one person using a Ponzi scheme to defraud thousands of customers. In the case of Wells Fargo, the culprits were managers putting excessive pressure on

workers to meet new account quotas. The case of Mylan included the dramatic rise in the price of the EpiPen in a short time span and reports that CEO Heather Bresch and other executives received compensation that increased over 700 percent during the same time frame. Adding to the Mylan case was the fact that Bresch is the daughter of West Virginia Senator Joseph Manchin, and prior to being appointed CEO at Mylan, Bresch served as Mylan’s chief lobbyist and helped craft the Generic Drug User Fee Amendments and the School Access to Emergency Epinephrine Act.

Where does the responsibility of managing ethical behavior in organizations reside? The answer is everyone in the organization is responsible to act in an ethical manner. The primary responsibility resides, however, with the CEO and also with the chief financial officer, who has the responsibility to oversee financial compliance with laws and regulations. Scott Stephenson, the CEO of Verisk Analytics, recently commented

on how he approaches the duality of what he terms a “loose–tight” approach to leadership where he provides his employees with the discretion and responsibility to make critical decisions in crisis situations where ethics might be involved. That’s the loose part. He also works on communicating and building trust in his employees so that he has the confidence they will act responsibly and make the correct decisions in crisis situations. That’s the tight part of his leadership duality.

Critical Thinking Questions

  • Do you think Verisk Analytics, a technology company that needs innovation breakthroughs, benefits from Stephenson’s “loose–tight” approach? What if Stepheson had been an autocratic leader? Explain your reasoning.
  • What kind of participative leader (described below) does Stephenson seem to be? Explain your choice.

Sources: Scott Stephenson, “The Duality of Balanced Leadership,” Forbes, https://www.forbes.com, November 29, 2017; Matt Egan, “Wells Fargo Uncovers Up to 1.4 Million More Fake Accounts,” CNN Money, http://money.cnn.com, August 31, 2017; Jesse Heitz, “The EpiPen Scandal and the Perception of the Washington Establishment,” The Hill, http://thehill.com, September 1, 2016; “Decade’s Top 10 Ethics Scandals,” The Wall Street Journal, https://www.wsj.com, August 9, 2010.

Participative leadership has three types: democratic, consensual, and consultative. Democratic leaders solicit input from all

members of the group and then allow the group members to make the final decision through a voting process. This approach works well with highly trained professionals. The president of a physicians’ clinic might use the democratic approach. Consensual leaders encourage discussion about issues and then require that all parties involved agree to the final decision. This is the general style used by labor mediators.

Consultative leaders confer with subordinates before making a decision but retain the final decision-making authority. This technique has been used to dramatically increase the productivity of assembly- line workers.

The third leadership style, at the opposite end of the continuum from the autocratic style, is free-rein or laissez-faire (French for “leave it alone”) leadership. Managers who use this style turn over all authority and control to subordinates. Employees are assigned a task and then given free rein to figure out the best way to accomplish it. The manager doesn’t get involved unless asked. Under this approach, subordinates have unlimited freedom as long as they do not violate existing company policies. This approach is also sometimes used with highly trained professionals as in a research laboratory.

Although one might at first assume that subordinates would prefer the free-rein style, this approach can have

several drawbacks. If free-rein leadership is accompanied by unclear expectations and lack of feedback from the manager, the experience can be frustrating for an employee. Employees may perceive the manager as being uninvolved and indifferent to

what is happening or as unwilling or unable to provide the necessary structure, information, and expertise.

No leadership style is effective all the time. Effective leaders recognize employee growth and use situational leadership, selecting a leadership style that matches the maturity and competency levels of those completing the tasks. Newly hired employees may respond well to authoritative leadership until they understand the job requirements and show the ability to handle routine decisions. Once established, however, those same employees may start to feel undervalued and perform better under a participative or free-rein leadership style. Using situational leadership empowers employees as discussed next.

Employee Empowerment

Participative and free-rein leaders use a technique called empowerment to share decision-making authority with subordinates. Empowerment means giving employees increased autonomy and discretion to make their own decisions, as well as control over the resources needed to implement those decisions. When decision-making power is shared at all levels of the organization, employees feel a greater sense of ownership in, and responsibility for, organizational outcomes.

Management use of employee empowerment is on the rise. This increased level of involvement comes from the realization that people at all levels in the organization possess unique knowledge, skills, and abilities that can be of great value to the company. For example, when Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf Coast, five miles of railroad tracks were ripped off a bridge

connecting New Orleans to Slidell, Louisiana. Without the tracks, which fell into Lake Pontchartrain, Norfolk Southern Railroad couldn’t transport products between the East and West Coasts. Before the storm hit, however, Jeff McCracken, a chief engineer at the company, traveled to Birmingham with equipment he thought he might need and then to Slidell with 100 employees. After conferring with dozens of company engineers and three bridge companies, McCracken decided to try to rescue the miles of track from the lake. (Building new tracks would have taken several weeks at the least.) To do so, he gathered 365 engineers, machine operators, and other workers, who lined up eight huge cranes and, over the course of several hours, lifted the five miles of sunken tracks in one piece out of the lake and bolted it back on the bridge.

Carol Hymowitz, “Middle Managers Are Unsung Heroes on Corporate Stage,” Wall Street Journal, September 19, 2005, p. B1.

By giving employees the autonomy to make decisions and access to required resources, Norfolk Southern was able to avoid serious interruptions in its nationwide service.

Management thought leader Peter Drucker (1909–2005) was the author of more than three dozen books, translated into almost as many languages. Most management scholars have remarked that although he was firmly associated with the human relations school of management—along with Douglas McGregor and Warren Bennis, for example—the thought leader Drucker most admired was Frederick Winslow Taylor, the father of “scientific” management. Should any one “school” of

management predominate thinking, or should all approaches be considered? (Credit: IsaacMao/ Flickr/ Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC BY 2.0))

A photograph shows Peter Drucker.

Corporate Culture

The leadership style of managers in an organization is usually indicative of the underlying philosophy, or values, of the organization. The set of attitudes, values, and standards of behavior that distinguishes one organization from another is called corporate culture. A corporate culture evolves over time and is based on the accumulated history of the organization, including the vision of the founders. It is also influenced by the dominant leadership style within the organization. Evidence of a company’s culture is seen in its heroes (e.g., the late Andy Grove of Intel

Andrew S. Grove 1936-2016, Intelcom, https://newsroom.intel.com/news-releases/andrew-s- grove-1936-2016/, accessed September 16, 2017.)

, myths (stories about the company passed from employee to employee), symbols (e.g., the Nike swoosh), and ceremonies. The culture at Google, working in teams and fostering innovation, sometimes is overlooked while its employee perks are drooled over. But both are important to the company’s corporate culture. Since 2007 Google has been at or near the top of Fortune’s list of the “100 Best Companies to Work For,”

an annual list based on employee survey results tabulated by an independent company: Great Place to Work®.

“How the Best Are Measured,” Great Place to Work,

https://www.greatplacetowork.com, accessed October 30, 2017.

We have never forgotten since our startup days that great things happen more frequently within the right culture and environment,” a company spokesperson said in response to the company first taking over the top spot.

Oscar Raymundo, “5 Reasons Googlers Think It’s the Best Place to Work,” Inc., https://www.inc.com, accessed November 11, 2017.

Culture may be intangible, but it has a tremendous impact on employee morale and a company’s success. Google approaches morale analytically. When it found that mothers were leaving the company in higher rates than other employee groups, the company improved its parental-leave policies. The result was a 50 percent reduction in attrition for working moms. An analytical approach along with culture-building activities such as town halls led by black employees and allies, support for transgender employees, and unconscious-bias workshops are why employees say Google is a safe and inclusive place to work.

“Fortune 100 Best Companies to Work For 2017,” Fortune.com, http://fortune.com/best-companies/google/, accessed October 30, 2017.

Clearly Google leaders recognize culture is critical to the company’s overall success.

  • How do leaders influence other people’s behavior?
  • How can managers empower employees?
  • What is corporate culture?

Summary of Learning Outcomes

Glossaryautocratic leadersDirective leaders who prefer to make decisions and solve problems on their own with little input from subordinates coercive powerPower that is derived from an individual’s ability to threaten negative outcomes.

consensual leaders

Leaders who encourage discussion about issues and then require that all parties involved agree to the final decision. consultative leaders

Leaders who confer with subordinates before making a decision but who retain the final decision-making authority. corporate culture

The set of attitudes, values, and standards that distinguishes one organization from another. democratic leaders

Leaders who solicit input from all members of the group and then allow the members to make the final decision through a vote.


The process of giving employees increased autonomy and discretion to make decisions, as well as control over the resources needed to implement those decisions.

expert power

Power that is derived from an individual’s extensive knowledge in one or more areas.

free-rein (laissez-faire) leadership

A leadership style in which the leader turns over all authority and control to subordinates.


The process of guiding and motivating others toward the achievement of organizational goals.

leadership style

The relatively consistent way that individuals in leadership positions attempt to influence the behavior of others. legitimate power

Power that is derived from an individual’s position in an organization.

participative leaders

Leaders who share decision-making with group members and encourage discussion of issues and alternatives; includes democratic, consensual, and consultative styles.

powerThe ability to influence others to behave in a particular way.referent powerPower that is derived from an individual’s personal charisma and the respect and/or admiration the individual inspires.reward powerPower that is derived from an individual’s control over rewards.situational leadershipSelecting a leadership style based on the maturity and competency level of those who will complete the task.



  • How do organizations control activities?

The fourth key function that managers perform is controlling. Controlling is the process of assessing the organization’s progress toward accomplishing its goals. It includes monitoring the implementation of a plan and correcting deviations from that plan. As (Figure) shows, controlling can be visualized as a cyclical process made up of five stages:

The Control Process

(Attribution: Copyright Rice University, OpenStax, under CC BY 4.0 license.)


Performance standards are the levels of performance the company wants to attain. These goals are based on its strategic, tactical, and operational plans. The most effective performance standards state a measurable behavioral objective that can be achieved in a specified time frame. For example, the performance objective for the sales division of a company could be stated as “$200,000 in gross sales for the month of January.” Each individual employee in that division would also have a specified performance goal. Actual firm, division, or individual performance can be measured against desired performance standards to see if a gap exists between the desired level of


performance and the actual level of performance. If a performance gap does exist, the reason for it must be determined and corrective action taken.

Feedback is essential to the process of control. Most companies have a reporting system that identifies areas where performance standards are not being met. A feedback system helps managers detect problems before

they get out of hand. If a problem exists, the managers take corrective action. Toyota uses a simple but effective control system on its automobile assembly lines. Each worker serves as the customer for the process just before his or hers. Each worker is empowered to act as a quality control inspector. If a part is defective or not installed properly, the next worker won’t accept it. Any worker can alert the supervisor to a problem by tugging on a rope that turns on a warning light (i.e., feedback). If the problem isn’t corrected, the worker can stop the entire assembly line.

Why is controlling such an important part of a manager’s job? First, it helps managers to determine the success of the other three functions: planning, organizing, and leading. Second, control systems direct employee behavior toward achieving organizational goals. Third, control systems provide a means of coordinating employee activities and integrating resources throughout the organization.

  • Describe the control process.
  • Why is the control process important to the success of the organization?

Summary of Learning Outcomes

GlossarycontrollingThe process of assessing the organization’s progress toward accomplishing its goals; includes monitoring the implementation of a plan and correcting deviations from the plan.


Managerial Roles

  • What roles do managers take on in different organizational settings?

In carrying out the responsibilities of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling, managers take on many different roles. A role is a set of behavioral expectations, or a set of activities that a person is expected to perform. Managers’ roles fall into three basic categories: informational roles, interpersonal roles, and decisional roles. These roles are summarized in (Figure). In an informational role, the manager may act as an information gatherer, an information distributor, or a spokesperson for the company. A manager’s interpersonal roles are based on various interactions with other people. Depending on the situation, a manager may need to act as a figurehead, a company leader, or a liaison. When acting in a decisional role, a manager may have to think like an entrepreneur, make decisions about resource allocation, help resolve conflicts, or negotiate compromises.

Managerial Decision Making

In every function performed, role taken on, and set of skills applied, a manager is a decision maker. Decision-making means choosing among alternatives. Decision-making occurs in response to the identification of a problem or an opportunity. The decisions managers make fall into two basic categories: programmed and nonprogrammed. Programmed decisions are made in response to routine situations that occur frequently in a variety of settings throughout an organization. For example, the need to hire new personnel is a common situation for most organizations. Therefore, standard procedures for recruitment and selection are developed and followed in most companies.

The Many Roles Managers Play in an Organization Role

Description Example Information Roles Monitor

  • Seeks out and gathers information relevant to the organization
  • Finding out about legal restrictions on new product technology


  • Provides information where it is needed in the organization
  • Providing current production figures to workers on the assembly line


  • Transmits information to people outside the organization
  • Representing the company at a shareholders’ meeting

Interpersonal Roles


  • Represents the company in a symbolic way
  • Cutting the ribbon at ceremony for the opening of a new building


  • Guides and motivates employees to achieve organizational goals
  • Helping subordinates to set monthly performance goals


  • Acts as a go-between among individuals inside and outside the organization
  • Representing the retail sales division of the company at a regional sales meeting

Decisional Roles


  • Searches out new opportunities and initiates change
  • Implementing a new production process using new technology

Disturbance handler

  • Handles unexpected events and crises
  • Handling a crisis situation such as a fire Resource allocator
  • Designates the use of financial, human, and other

organizational resources

  • Approving the funds necessary to purchase computer equipment and hire personnel


  • Represents the company at negotiating processes

Participating in salary negotiations with union representatives

Infrequent,unforeseen,orveryunusualproblemsand opportunities require nonprogrammed decisions by managers.

Because these situations are unique and complex, the manager rarely has a precedent to follow. The earlier example of the Norfolk Southern employee, who had to decide the best way to salvage a five-mile-long piece of railroad track from the bottom of Lake Pontchartrain, is an example of a nonprogrammed decision. Likewise, when Hurricane Katrina was forecast to make landfall, Thomas Oreck, then CEO of the vacuum manufacturer that bears his name, had to make a series of nonprogrammed decisions. Oreck’s corporate headquarters were in New Orleans, and its primary manufacturing facility was in Long Beach, Mississippi. Before the storm hit, Oreck transferred its computer systems and call-center operations to backup locations in Colorado and planned to move headquarters to Long Beach. The storm, however, brutally hit both locations. Oreck executives began searching for lost employees, tracking down generators, assembling temporary housing for workers, and making deals with UPS to begin distributing its product (UPS brought food and water to Oreck from Atlanta and took vacuums back to the company’s distribution center there). All of these decisions were made in the middle of a very challenging crisis environment.

Whether a decision is programmed or nonprogrammed, managers typically follow five steps in the decision-making process, as illustrated in (Figure):

  • Recognize or define the problem or opportunity. Although it is more common to focus on problems because of their obvious negative effects, managers who do not take advantage of new opportunities may

lose competitive advantage to other firms.

  • Gather information so as to identify alternative solutions or actions.
  • Select one or more alternatives after evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of each possibility.
  • Put the chosen alternative into action.
  • Gather information to obtain feedback on the effectiveness of the chosen plan.

It can be easy (and dangerous) for managers to get stuck at any stage of the decision-making process. For example, entrepreneurs can become paralyzed evaluating the options. For the Gabby Slome, the cofounder of natural pet food maker Ollie, the idea for starting the company came after her rescue dog began having trouble digesting store-bought pet food after living on scraps. Slome decided that the pet food industry, a $30 billion a year business, was ripe for a natural food alternative. She laments, however, that she let perfect be the enemy of the very good by indulging in “analysis paralysis.”

Megan Bruneau, “Overcome ‘Analysis Paralysis’ and Execute on Your Idea: 5 Tips from Ollie Cofounder Gabby Slome,” Forbes, https: www.forbes.com, November 19, 2017.

The Decision-Making Process

(Attribution: Copyright Rice University, OpenStax, under CC BY 4.0 license.)


  • What are the three types of managerial roles?
  • Give examples of things managers might do when acting in each of the different types of roles.
  • List the five steps in the decision-making process.

Summary of Learning Outcomes

Depending on the situation, a

manager may need to act as a figurehead, a company leader, or a liaison.


decisional roles

A manager’s activities as an entrepreneur, resource allocator, conflict resolver, or negotiator. informational roles

A manager’s activities as an information gatherer, an information disseminator, or a spokesperson for the company.

interpersonal roles

A manager’s activities as a figurehead, company leader, or liaison.

Responses to infrequent, unforeseen, or very unusual problems and opportunities where the manager does not have a precedent to follow in decision-making. programmed decisions

Decisions made in response to frequently occurring routine situations.


Managerial Skills

  • What set of managerial skills is necessary for managerial success?

In order to be successful in planning, organizing, leading, and controlling, managers must use a wide variety of skills. A skill is the ability to do something proficiently. Managerial skills fall into three basic categories: technical, human relations, and conceptual skills. The degree to which each type of skill is used depends upon the level of the manager’s position as seen in (Figure). Additionally, in an increasingly global marketplace, it pays for managers to develop a special set of skills to deal with global management issues.

The Importance of Managerial Skills at Different Management Levels

(Attribution: Copyright Rice University, OpenStax, under CC BY 4.0 license.)


Technical Skills

Specialized areas of knowledge and expertise and the ability to apply that knowledge make up a manager’s technical skills. Preparing a financial statement, programming a computer, designing an office building, and analyzing market research are all examples of technical skills. These types of skills are especially important for supervisory managers because they work closely with employees who are producing the goods and/ or services of the firm.

Human Relations Skills

Human relations skills are the interpersonal skills managers use to accomplish goals through the use of human resources.


This set of skills includes the ability to understand human behavior, to communicate effectively with others, and to motivate individuals to accomplish their objectives. Giving positive feedback to employees, being sensitive to their individual needs, and showing a willingness to empower subordinates are all examples of good human relations skills. Identifying and promoting managers with human relations skills are important for companies. A manager with little or no people skills can end up using an authoritarian leadership style and alienating employees.

Conceptual Skills

Conceptual skills include the ability to view the organization as a whole, understand how the various parts are interdependent, and assess how the organization relates to its external environment. These skills allow managers to evaluate situations and develop alternative courses of action. Good conceptual skills are especially necessary for managers at the top of the management pyramid, where strategic planning takes place.

  • Define the basic managerial skills.
  • How important is each of these skill sets at the different levels of the management pyramid?

Summary of Learning Outcomes

Managerial skills fall into three basic categories: technical,

human relations, and conceptual skills.

Glossaryconceptual skillsA manager’s ability to view the organization as a whole, understand how the various parts are interdependent, and assess how the organization relates to its external environment.human relations skillsA manager’s interpersonal skills that are used to accomplish goals through the use of human resources. technical skillsA manager’s specialized areas of knowledge and expertise, as well as the ability to apply that knowledge.


Trends in Management and Leadership

  • What trends will affect management in the future?

Four important trends in management today are crisis management, outside directors, the growing use of information technology, and the increasing need for global management skills.

Crisis Management

Crises, both internal and external, can hit even the best-managed organization. Sometimes organizations can anticipate crises, in which case managers develop contingency plans, and sometimes they can’t. Take, for example, the sudden death of McDonald’s CEO Jim Cantalupo. The company had a solid succession plan in place and immediately named Charlie Bell as new CEO. Only a few months later, Bell announced that he had terminal

cancer. Even though the company had prepared for the event of its leader’s untimely death, surely it couldn’t have anticipated that his successor would also be stricken by a terminal illness at almost the same time. Likewise, consider the devastation caused by Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, Maria, and Nate in 2017. Part of Marriott Hotels’ crisis management plan included relaxing its “no pets” policy and allowing patrons fleeing the storm to check in with their pets because it was the right thing to do.

Elliot Mest, “6 Ways That Hotels Can Prevent, Prepare for Crisis Situations,” Hotel Management, https://www.hotelmanagement.net, November 15, 2017.

Crises cannot be fully anticipated, but managers can develop contingency plans to help navigate through the aftermath of a disaster. For example, consider the challenges that faced Rajiv Joseph, the author of several plays including Bengal Tiger at the Baghdad Zoo, who was in Houston preparing to open his new play, Describe the Night, at the Alley Theater when Hurricane Harvey hit and flooded the theater a few weeks prior to opening night. The six New York–based actors, the director, the stage manager, and Joseph decided to help in the relief efforts and made their way to the George Brown Convention Center, which had become the central location for relief efforts. When they arrived and the staffers discovered they were theater artists, they were deployed to handle the writing and deployment of public address announcements and manage the incoming crowds.

What made the relief efforts successful was planning—matching the skill sets of volunteers with tasks they are best able to perform.

Rajiv Joseph, “More Than the Usual Opening Night Jitters,”

The New York Times, https://www.nytime.com, November 26, 2017.

Even though those in charge of the relief efforts had contingency plans, they still needed to make dozens of nonprogrammed decisions to effectively manage the ever-changing situation.


No manager or executive can be completely prepared for these types of unexpected crises. However, how a

manager handles the situation could mean the difference between disaster, survival, and even financial gain. No matter the crisis, there are some basic guidelines managers should follow to minimize negative outcomes. Managers should not become immobilized by the problem or ignore it. Managers should face the problem head on. Managers should always tell the truth about the situation and then put the best people on the job to correct the problem. Managers should ask for help if they need it, and finally, managers must learn from the experience to avoid the same problem in the future.

This section is adapted from Vivian Giang, “The 7 Types of Power That Shape the Workplace,” Business Insider, http://www.businessinsider.com, July 31, 2013.

(Figure) describes what CEOs and other leaders learned about crisis management.

Managers and Information Technology

The second trend having a major impact on managers is the

proliferation of data and analytics in information technology. An increasing number of organizations are selling technology, and an increasing number are looking for cutting-edge technology to make and market the products and services they sell. One particularly useful type of technology is dashboard software. Much like the dashboard in a car, dashboard software gives managers a quick look into the relevant information they need to manage their companies. Most large companies are organized in divisions, and often each division relies on a particular type of application or database software. Dashboard software allows employees to access information from software they don’t routinely use, for example, from an application used by a different division from their own. More important, however, is the ability of a dashboard to show up-to-the-minute information and to allow employees to see all the information they need—such as financial and performance data—on a single screen.

Sources: Danny Gavin, “Customer Service Lessons Learned in the Wake of Hurricane Harvey,” Forbes, September 26, 2017; Jay Steinfeld, “5 Lessons Learned from Hurricane Harvey,” Inc., September 21, 2017; Susan Burns and David Hackett, “Business Lessons from Hurricane Irma,” 941CEO, November-December 2017; “New Lessons to Learn,” Fortune, October 3, 2005, pp.

Lessons Leaders Learned about Managing Crises

Howard Schultz

Chairman, Starbucks

Gary Loveman



  • W. Marriott



Geno Auriemma

University of Connecticut Basketball Coach

Learn from one crisis at a time. After the Seattle earthquake of 2001, the company invested in a notification system that could handle text messaging. The night before Hurricane Katrina hit, Starbucks sent out 2,300 phone calls to associates in the region, telling them about available resources.

Make life easier for your employees. Before the storm hit, management announced that in the event of total entertainment disaster, employees would be paid for at least 90 days. The decision was meant to provide employees with some certainty during a very uncertain time.

Communicate for safety. Marriott moved its email system out of New Orleans before Katrina hit. As a result, employees were able to communicate with each other and vendors to get food and water to affected areas. A massive publicity campaign (Dial

1-800-Marriott) helped the company find 2,500 of its 2,800 people in the region.

It’s about doing it in a way that it can’t be done any better. That is the goal every day.


Lessons Leaders Learned about Managing Crises

Danny Gavin

VP, Brian Gavin Diamonds

Bob Nardelli

CEO, Home Depot

Scott Ford CEO, Alltel

Paul Pressler

CEO, Gap

“Create an unforgettable customer experience” may sound like a cliché, but this is our golden rule. Despite waist-high water and treacherous conditions, we had several international orders that needed to be shipped the Wednesday after Hurricane Harvey hit. FedEx and UPS had ceased operations around the Houston area during the storm, but our CEO Brian Gavin was determined to deliver an outstanding customer service experience. That’s why he drove with the packages in hand to the nearest FedEx store that was open: College Station. The standard three-hour round trip ended up taking five hours.

Prepare for the next big one. After each catastrophic event, Home Depot does a postmortem on its response efforts so that employees and managers can become more experienced and better prepared. Before Katrina hit, the company prestaged extra supplies and generators, sent 1,000 relief associates to work in the stores in the Gulf Region, and made sure that area stores were overstocked with first-response items such as insecticides, water, and home generators.

Take care of everybody. When Katrina hit, Alltel was missing 35 employees. When the company had found all but one, managers used the company’s network infrastructure to track her phone activity, contact the last person she had called, and work with the army to find her.

Empower the workforce. Gap had 1,300 employees affected by Katrina, and one of the biggest problems the company faced was getting people their paychecks. The company, which had extended payroll by 30 days to affected employees, now encourages all employees to use direct deposit as a means to ensure access to their pay.


Lessons Leaders Learned about Managing Crises

Jim Skinner CEO,


Robert Baugh


Chiles Restaurants

Be flexible with company assets. McDonald’s had 280 restaurants close in the immediate aftermath of the storm, but shortly afterward, 201 were already open. During the crisis, McDonald’s converted its human resource service center into a crisis command center. The quickly formed help center fielded 3,800 calls.

With Hurricane Irma approaching, Baugh communicated with staff for several days before the storm to prepare and to find out which employees would be evacuating, which would be staying, and which had special needs. The Chiles Group used Hot Schedules, a platform all employees log into, to create a timeline to secure all three restaurants (since these restaurants have lots of outdoor seating and outdoor bars, it was a huge chore) and to broadcast when the restaurants would reopen. Team leaders were responsible for communicating with their members. Vendors and chefs were told earlier in the week to reduce food orders to minimize loss. Freezers and refrigerators were packed with hundreds of bags of ice.

Such integrated functionality made dashboards extremely popular. A Gartner commentary suggests that companies put data and analytics at the heart of every company business decision.

Andrew White, “Put Data and Analytics at the Heart of Your Digital Business,” Gartner Blog Network, https://blogs.gartner.com, November 20, 2017,

Despite the increasing popularity of dashboard technology, the control tool has some drawbacks, such as focusing too intently on short-term results and ignoring the overall progress toward

long-term goals. And some employees might bristle at being monitored as closely as dashboard tools allow.

Nonetheless, companies are seeing real results from implementing dashboard software. Robert Romanoff, a partner at the law firm of Levenfeld Romanoff in Chicago, uses dashboards that aggregate data from clients, strategic partners, and internal staff from the mailroom to the boardroom to improve what he calls the 3 Ps. The 3 Ps are process efficiency, project management, and strategic pricing.

David J. Parnell, “Robert Romanoff of Levenfeld Pearlstein: Real Change Requires Leadership, Not Consensus,” Forbes, http://www.forbes.com, November 6, 2017; “Matthew W. Schuyler,” HiltonWorldwide.com, accessed September 16, 2017.

Marketing and sales professionals are increasingly turning to advanced software programs called “dashboards” to monitor business and evaluate performance. These computer tools use analytics and big data to help managers identify valuable customers, track sales, and align plans with company objectives—all in real time. A typical dashboard might include sales and bookings forecasts, monthly close data, customer satisfaction data, and employee training schedules. This example tracks customers attending the Consumer Electronics Show so that the buzz created by influencers can be measured. How does information technology affect managerial decision- making? (Credit: Intel Free Press/ flickr/ Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC BY 2.0))


Managing Multinational Cultures

The increasing globalization of the world market has created a need for managers who have global management skills, that is, the ability to operate in diverse cultural environments. With more and more companies choosing to do business in multiple locations around the world, employees are often required to learn the geography, language, and social customs of other cultures. It is expensive to train employees for foreign assignments and pay their relocation costs; therefore, choosing the right person for the job is especially important. Individuals who are open minded, flexible, willing to try new things, and comfortable in a multicultural setting are good candidates for international management positions.

As companies expand around the globe, managers will continue to face the challenges of directing the behavior of employees around the world. They must recognize that because of cultural

differences, people respond to similar situations in very different ways. The burden, therefore, falls on the manager to produce results while adapting to the differences among the employees he or she manages.

How a manager gets results, wins respect, and leads employees varies greatly among countries, cultures, and individuals. For example, different cultures have different approaches to time. American, German, and Swiss cultures, among others, take a linear view of time, whereas southern European counties such as Italy take a multi-active time approach, and many Eastern cultures, such as China, take a cyclic approach. An American manager with a linear view of time will approach scheduling planning with a different approach than colleagues with a multi- active or cyclic approach.

Richard Lewis, “How Different Cultures Understand Time,”

Business Insider, http://www.businessinsider.com, June 1, 2014.

Despite differences such as these (examples of which can be cited for every country in the world), managing within a different culture is only an extension of what managers do every day: working with differences in employees, processes, and projects.

  • How can information technology aid in decision- making?
  • What are three principles of managing multinational cultures?
  • Describe several guidelines for crisis management.

Summary of Learning Outcomes


What trends will affect management in the future?

Three important trends in management today are preparing for crises management, the increasing use of information technology, and the need to manage multinational cultures. Crisis management requires quick action, telling the truth about the situation, and putting the best people on the task to correct the situation. Finally, management must learn from the crisis in order to prevent it from happening again. Using the latest

information technology, such as dashboard software, managers can make quicker, better-informed decisions. As more companies “go global,” the need for multinational cultural management skills is growing. Managers must set a good example, create personal involvement for all employees, and develop a culture of trust.

Preparing for Tomorrow’s Workplace Skills

  • Would you be a good manager? Do a self-assessment that includes your current technical, human relations, and conceptual skills. What skills do you already possess, and which do you need to add? Where do your strengths lie? Based on this exercise, develop a description of an effective manager. (Resources, Information)
  • Successful managers map out what they want to do with their time (planning), determine the activities and tasks they need to accomplish in that time frame

(organizing), and make sure they stay on track (controlling). How well do you manage your time? Do you think ahead, or do you tend to procrastinate? Examine how you use your time, and identify at least three areas where you can improve your time management skills. (Resources)

  • Often researchers cast leadership in an inspirational role in a company and management in more of an administrative role. That tendency seems to put leadership and management in a hierarchy. Do you think one is more important than the other? Do you think a company can succeed if it has bad managers and good leaders? What about if it has good managers and bad leaders? Are managers and leaders actually the same? (Systems)
  • Today’s managers must be comfortable using all kinds of technology. Do an inventory of your computer skills, and identify any gaps. After listing your areas of weakness, make a plan to increase your computer competency by enrolling in a computer class on or off campus. You may want to practice using common business applications such as Microsoft Excel by building a spreadsheet to track your budget, Microsoft PowerPoint by creating slides for your next class project, and Microsoft Outlook by uploading your semester schedule. (Information, Technology)
  • Team Activity One of the most common types of planning that managers do is operational planning, or

the creation of policies, procedures, and rules and regulations. Assemble a team of three classmates, and work together to draft an operational plan that addresses employee attendance (or absenteeism). (Interpersonal, Systems)

Ethics Activity

Are top executives paid too much? A study of CEO compensation revealed that CEO bonuses rose considerably—from 20 percent to 30 percent—even at companies whose revenues or profits dropped or those that reported significant employee layoffs. Such high pay for CEOs at underperforming companies, as well as CEO compensation at companies with stellar results, has raised many questions from investors and others.

The highest gap in pay was in 2000. CEO pay at the largest U.S. firms was 376 times higher than that of average workers. The gap has shrunk to only 271 times higher in 2016, but that is still a lot higher than the 59-to-1 ratio in 1989. The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) now requires public companies to disclose full details of executive compensation, including salaries, bonuses, pensions, benefits, stock options, and severance and retirement packages.

Even some CEOs question the high levels of CEO pay. Edgar Woolard, Jr., former CEO and chairman of DuPont, thinks so. “CEO pay is driven today primarily by outside consultant surveys,” he says. Companies all want their

CEOs to be in the top half, and preferably the top quarter, of all CEOs. This leads to annual increases. He also criticizes the enormous severance packages that company boards give to CEOs that fail. For

example, Carly Fiorina of Hewlett-Packard received $20 million when she was fired.

Using a web search tool, locate articles about this topic, and then write responses to the questions in the Ethical Dilemma section below. Be sure to support your arguments and cite your sources.

Ethical Dilemma: Are CEOs entitled to increases in compensation when their company’s financial situation worsens, because their job becomes more challenging? If they fail, are they entitled to huge severance packages for their efforts? Should companies be required to divulge all details of compensation for their highest top managers, and what effect is such disclosure likely to have on executive pay?

Sources: U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, “SEC Adopts Rule for Pay Ratio Disclosure,” https://www.sec.gov, accessed September 21, 2017; Jeff Cox, “CEOs Make 271 Times the Pay of Most Workers,” CNBC, https://www.cnbc.com, July 20, 2017; Irv Becker, “Why CEOs Aren’t Overpaid,” Fortune, http://fortune.com, June 11, 2017; “CEOs are Overpaid, Says Former DuPont CEO Edgar Woolard Jr.,” PR Newswire, February 9, 2006, http://proquest.umi.com; Elizabeth Souder, “Firm Questions Exxon CEO’s Pay,” Dallas Morning News, December 15, 2005, http://galenet.thomsonlearning.com; “Weaker Company Performance Does Not Seem to Slow CEO Pay Increases,” Corporate Board, September-October 2005, p. 27, http://galenet.thomsonlearning.com; “What Price CEO Pay?” The Blade (Toledo, Ohio), January 20, 2006, http://www.toledoblade.com.

Working the Net

  • Are you leadership material? See how you measure up at Your Leadership Legacy, http://www.yourleadershiplegacy.com/ assessment.html. Read the commentary, and take the test. Study the outcome, and provide an example of how you would put each item into action.
  • Strategic Advantage, http://www.balancedscorecard.org/, offers many reasons why companies should develop strategic plans, as well as a strategy tip of the month, assessment tools, planning exercises, and resource links. Explore the site to learn the effect of strategic planning on financial performance, and present your evidence to the class. Then select a planning exercise, and with a group of classmates, perform it as it applies to your school.
  • Congratulations! You’ve just been promoted to your first supervisory position. However, you are at a loss as to how to actually manage your staff. This guide to general management, https://www.thebalance.com/ management-4073997, brings together a variety of materials to help you. Check out Management Skills, as well as other resources. Develop a plan for yourself to follow.
  • How do entrepreneurs develop the corporate culture of their companies? Do a search of the term “corporate culture” on Inc. (https://www.inc.com),

Entrepreneur (https://www.entrepreneur.com), or Fast Company (https://www.fastcompany.com). Prepare a short presentation for your class that explains the importance of corporate culture and how it is developed in young firms.

  • Good managers and leaders know how to empower their employees. The Business e-Coach at http://www.1000ventures.com explains why employee empowerment is so important in today’s knowledge economy. After reviewing the information at this site, prepare a brief report on the benefits of employee empowerment. Include several ideas you would like a manager to use to empower you.
  • Get some leadership tips from 7 Steps to Closure at the Learning Center, http://www.learningcenter.net. Complete the Closure Planning Form to develop your own personal Success-Oriented Action Plan.


Thinking Case

Managing an Extreme Makeover

During a tour of a Toyota Corolla assembly plant located near their headquarters in Bangalore, India, executives of Wipro Ltd. hit on a revolutionary idea—why not apply Toyota’s successful manufacturing techniques to managing their software development and clients’ back-office operations business?

“Toyota preaches continuous improvement, respect for employees, learning, and embracing change,” says T. K. Kurien,

45, former head of Wipro’s 13,600-person business-process outsourcing unit. “What we do is apply people, technology, and processes to solve a business problem.”

Among the problems spotted early on by Kurien? Cubicles. They’re normal for programmers but interrupt the flow for business-process employees. Deciding to position people side by side at long tables assembly-line style “was a roaring disaster,” admits Kurien. “The factory idea concerned people.” So based on feedback from his middle managers, Kurien arranged classes to explain his concepts and how they would ultimately make life easier for employees.

Wipro also adopted Toyota’s kaizen system of soliciting employee suggestions. Priya, who has worked for Wipro for years, submitted several kaizen and was delighted when her bosses responded promptly to her suggestions. “Even though it’s something small, it feels good. You’re being considered,” she says.

Empowerment in the workplace washed over into her private life. As the first woman in her family to attend college, she told her parents they may arrange her marriage only to a man who will not interfere with her career.

Kurien and his managers work hard at boosting employee morale, offering rewards—pens, caps, or shirts—to employees who submit suggestions to kaizen boxes. And each week, a top- performing employee receives a cake. Murthy, an accountant who hopes to be Wipro’s chief financial officer someday, spearheaded an effort to cut government import approval times from 30 to 15 days. He got a cake with his name written on it in

honey. “I was surprised management knew what I was doing,” he says. “Now I want to do more projects.”

With multibillions in revenues, thousands of employees, and a U.S.-traded stock that advanced 230 percent in a two-year period, Wipro is a star of India’s burgeoning information technology industry. The company’s paperwork processing operations bear a clear resemblance to a Toyota plant. Two shifts of young people line long rows of tables. At the start of each shift, team leaders discuss the day’s goals and divide up tasks. And

just like in a Toyota factory, electronic displays mounted on the walls shift from green to red if things get bogged down.

This obsession with management efficiency has helped India become the back-office operation for hundreds of Western companies, resulting in the transfer of many thousands of jobs offshore. “If the Indians get this right, in addition to their low labor rates, they can become deadly competition,” says Jeffrey

  • Liker, a business professor at the University of Michigan and author of The Toyota Way, a book about Toyota’s lean manufacturing techniques. If Kurien’s management initiatives succeed, experts may soon be extolling the Wipro way.

Critical Thinking Questions

  • What type of manager is T. K. Kurien? How would you characterize his leadership style?
  • What managerial role does T. K. Kurien assume in his approach to attaining his division’s goal of improved customer service?
  • What management skill sets does he exhibit?

Sources: Steve Hamm, “Taking a Page from Toyota’s Playbook,”BloombergBusinessweek, https://www.bloomberg.com, accessed November 17, 2017; Shilpa Phadnis, “T K Kurien to Leave Wipro This Month,” The Times of India, https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com, January 23, 2017; Toyota Resumes Efficiency Drive,” BBC News, http://www.bbc.com, March 26, 2015.

Hot Links Address Book

  • Visit the International Business Leaders Forum (IBLF) at http://www.iblfglobal.org to discover what today’s international business leaders are focusing on.
  • To learn more about how firms develop contingency plans for all sorts of crises, visit Mind Tools at https://www.mindtools.com.
  • Who are the leaders of this year’s Inc. 500, and what do they have to say about their success? Find out at the Inc. 500 site at https://www.inc.com.
  • Want to learn more about Bill Gates’s management style? Go to his personal website, https://www.gatesnotes.com/Bio, to read his official biography, books, and other information.
  • Most successful managers work hard at continually updating their managerial skills. One organization that offers many ongoing training and education programs is the American Management Association.

Visit its site at http://www.amanet.org.

  • Search Questia’s online library at https://www.questia.com for leadership resources. You’ll be able to preview a wide variety of books, journals, and other materials.

Glossaryglobal management skillsA manager’s ability to operate in diverse cultural environments.



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