74 Capítulo Uno: Sobre mí

Chapter One: About me




Before beginning this chapter, it is important to recognize which skills and tasks you will be expected to learn to perform. Do you already have some previous skills or knowledge in these areas that you can use to your advantage? Are there any topics that you foresee being difficult? If so, it is a good idea to pursue additional assistance to get ahead of any potential issues. You are the master of your education—you have the power to take ownership of your learning!

In this chapter, I will:

Get familiar with what Latino or Hispanic means.

Greet and say goodbye to another person

Introduce myself, and others, to another person

Spell out words

List what classes I’m currently taking

Express what there is in my classroom

Discuss cultural, geographical and historical facts about Spain.

Chapter Overview:

Welcome to Libro Libre! In chapter 1, “sobre mí,” we will dive right in, using Spanish to talk about our immediate context: introductions, greetings, and goodbyes. You will be able to share a little about yourself and learn about your classmates and instructors in order to better know the people you’ll be working with. As we continue in the chapter, you’ll talk with classmates about your classes. Some grammatical skills you will work on to support these conversations include definite and indefinite articles, the gender and number of nouns, and verbs such as haber to describe what you see in the classroom.




Functions/Structures/ Grammar



Greetings and Farewells

Formal vs Informal


Academic Subjects

The Alphabet

Gender and Number

Definite and indefinite articles

Los patrones: Nouns



Reading/ Lectura:

¿Quienes somos los latinos o hispanos?

Los hispanos en los Estados Unidos

Introduction to Encantado.

La Sagrada Familia


Vowels (A, E, I, O, U)











¡A descubrir!



¡A leer!


Actividad 1. ¿Quiénes somos los latinos o hispanos?


Instrucciones: Lee el texto y responde. Read the text and answer the following questions.

¿Quiénes somos los latinos o hispanos?image







“Hispano” o “latino” se refiere a una persona de origen cubano, mexicano, puertorriqueño, centro- o suramericano o de otra cultura u origen español, independientemente de la raza. La diferencia entre los dos está en el origen de las palabras. La palabra “hispano” conecta a la persona con España por su historia colonial en Latinoamérica y por su lengua: el español. La palabra “latino” conecta a la persona con su origen de Latinoamérica o la cultura latina de Europa, pero no con la lengua española necesariamente.


Being Hispanic or Latino can be viewed as a matter of heritage, nationality, group, lineage, or country of birth of the person or the person’s parents or their ancestors before their arrival in the United States. People who identify their origin as Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish may be any race. The difference between “Hispanic” and “Latino” is connected to the origin of the words. The word “Hispanic” connects the person with Spain by the colonial history in Latin America and by the person’s language: Spanish. The word “Latino” connects the person with their origins in Latin America or the Latin cultures of Europe, but not necessarily with the Spanish language.

• When it comes to describing their identity, most Hispanics prefer their family’s country of origin over pan-ethnic terms. Half (51%) say that most often they use their family’s country of origin to describe their identity. That includes such terms as “Mexican” or “Cuban” or “Dominican,” for example. Just one-quarter (24%) say they use the terms “Hispanic” or “Latino” to most often describe their identity. And 21% say they use the term “American” most often.

• “Hispanic” or “Latino”? Most don’t care—but among those who do, “Hispanic” is preferred. Half (51%) say they have no preference for either term. When a preference is expressed, “Hispanic” is preferred over “Latino” by more than a two-to- one margin—33% versus 14%.





Do the terms “Hispanic” and latino refer to peoples’ race?


Do Latin people speak Spanish?


Does the term hispanic is preferred to describe people’s identities?


What is something in common that Hispanic people have?


¡A hablar!

Actividad 2. Los hispanos en los Estados Unidos.

Paso 1: Read the following paragraph “Los hispanos en los Estados Unidos” and answer the following questions about the reading to the questions.


Los hispanos en los Estados Unidosimage













La población hispana en los Estados Unidos es muy diversa. Hay aproximadamente 58,9 millones de hispanos en los EE.UU. desde el año 2017. Esto representa un 18,1% de la población total de los Estados Unidos que es de 327,2 millones de personas (en el 2018). Esto es 21 millones más que en el año 2000. Hay muchos estados donde hay una presencia hispana muy grande. Los estados donde hay más hispanos en los Estados Unidos son: California, Tejas, Arizona y Nuevo México.


The Hispanic population in the United States is very diverse. Since 2017, there are approximately 58. 9 million of Hispanics in the United States. This represents 18.1 % of the total population of 327.2 millions in the US. in the year 2000. There are several states where there is a great Hispanic presence. The states with the most Hispanic population are : California, Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico.



¿Cuáles son tres estados en los Estados Unidos donde hay muchos hispanos?

¿Cuál es la población aproximada de hispanos en los Estados Unidos?

¿Cuál es la población aproximada de hispanos en los Estados Unidos?

¿Quiénes son tres hispanos famosos en los Estados Unidos y de dónde son?

¿Hay personas hispanas en tu familia? ¿Hay personas hispanas entre (among) tus amigos?


Paso 2: Comenta con un compañero. Discuss your answers with a classmate.


II. ¡A aprender!

Section 1: Saludar y despedirse: To greet and image

Hola, amiga. ¿Cómo estás?

¡A leer!

Actividad 3. Encantado

Instrucciones: Read the following text and decide if the following sentences are true (V) or false (F) according to the reading ‘Encantado”.


People greeting each other: Canva Encantadoimage

When you are introducing yourself – or even when you are introducing one person to another person – there are some standard phrases that we typically use. First, you usually give your name or the name of the person you are introducing. Then, you usually indicate in some way that you are pleased to meet the other person.

With greetings and goodbyes in Spanish, the conversation will vary somewhat depending upon the relationship you have or will have with the person you are meeting. This relationship ranges from being very familiar to very formal. For example, if you are introducing yourself to someone your own age or with whom you would be considered a peer, to children, or to friends of friends, you would likely use a more informal greeting. If you are greeting someone with more of a social distance, such as an authority figure (professor, doctor, boss, an elder, or a potential employer), you would use a more formal greeting.

As you learn the phrases for introductions and goodbyes, you might find that there are words or grammatical points you don’t understand. Don’t worry that you don’t know why ¿Cómo se llama? and ¿Cómo te llamas? are different– for the time being, just focus on learning the phrases and patterns.


Cierto (C) o Falso (F)

_____ Cuando presentas (introduce) a alguien, dices (you say) su nombre.

_____ Hay saludos (greetings) informales (familiar) y formales.

_____ un saludo a un Doctor es informal.


¡A mirar!


Actividad 4. ¿Qué significa? What is the meaning?

Instrucciones: Mira el video y conecta las frases en español con el significado en inglés. Watch the video Greetings and Goodbyes in Spanish

and connect the Spanish phrases with their meaning in English.




Buenos días

Buenas tardes


¿Cómo estás?

¿Cómo está?

¿Y usted?

¿Qué tal?

Nos vemos

See you

And you (formal)

Good morning


How are you (formal)

How are you (informal)


Good afternoon




Buenos días

¿Qué tal?

¿Cómo está usted?

Nos vemos

¿Cómo estás?




Good morning.

See you later.

How are you (informal)?

____ Hello

____ How are you (formal)?

____ What’s up?/How are you?


Actividad 5. ¿Qué dirías? What would you say?

Instrucciones: Mira las fotos y escoge el saludo adecuado según la hora. Look at the pictures and pick the appropriate greeting for that time of day.

El mañana La tarde La nocheimageimageimage

Buenos días Buenas tardes Buenas noches


Modelo: 10:13 PM: Buenas noches___________


12:20 PM: _________________________

7:15 AM: __________________________

9:30 PM: __________________________

Actividad 6. ¿Formal o informal?

Instrucciones: Mira las fotos y lee los saludos. Look at the pictures and read the greetings

Paso 1: Circula formal o informal.

Tú vs. usted

In Spanish, there are two ways to address someone as you. There is a formal you, usted, and informal you, .

Usted is used when you want to address someone with respect. Usted is often used with elders, professionals, people in positions of authority, or strangers.

is used with children, peers, and people with whom you are quite familiar. Some families use tú with parents and grandparents but others do not.

Some countries speak more formally or informally than others. Listen to people around you and use your instincts. Don’t worry if you do not use the best option with someone. They will know you are learning.

Worst case scenario, someone might correct you. I have never known anyone to be offended by a learner.



Formal Informal

Hola, amiga. ¿Cómo estás?

Yo estoy bien. ¿Y ?

Fotos y saludos:

Formal Informalimage

– Buenos días, ¿cómo está usted?

– Yo estoy bien, gracias. ¿Y usted?


Formal Informal

– Buenos días, ¿cómo estás?

– Yo estoy bien, gracias. ¿Y ?

Paso 2: Circula tú o usted

Paso 3: Completa la conversación

Modelo: image

tú usted

-Hola, Lan. ¿Cómo estás ?

-Yo estoy feliz.






1. túusted


-Buenos días, doctor Martínez.

¿ Cómo ___________?

-Yo estoy bien, gracias.


El doctor (Dr.) Martínez

2. tú ustedimage


Hola, Alejandra. ¿Qué tal?

Estoy bien. ¿Y _____, Pedro?




3. tú usted


Buenas tardes, Sra. Ramirez.

¿Puede __________ repetir la pregunta?





Los saludos y las despedidas

Los saludos Las despedidas



Hola __________________________

Buenos días ____________________

Buenas tardes ___________________

Buenas noches __________________

Buenas ________________________

¿Qué tal? ______________________

¿Cómo está? ____________________

¿Cómo estás? ___________________

Hasta mañana ___________________

Hasta el viernes _________________


Nos vemos _______________________

¡Cuídate! ________________________

¡Que te vaya bien! _________________

Adiós ____________________________

Hasta pronto ______________________

Hasta luego _______________________

Las repuestas

Gracias, igualmente ______________________________________________________

(Muy)/(Todo) bien ___________________________________________

Más o menos _________________________________________

Así así __________________________________________

(Muy) mal __________________________________________

¿Y tú? __________________________________________

¿Y usted? ________________________________________

Gracias ___________________________________________

De nada _________________________________________

Lo siento __________________________________________

Actividad 7. ¿Cómo se responde? How do I respond?

Instrucciones: Responde apropiadamente. Give an appropriate response. Modelo:

-Gracias: de nada.

Saludos o despedidas:

1. -Hola: ___________________________

2. Hasta luego: _____________________

3. ¿Cómo estás?:____________________

4. Muy mal:________________________

5. ¿Qué tal?:________________________

¡A hablar!

Actividad 8. Un encuentro. An encounter.

Contexto: Imagine that you quickly see a friend passing by at a festival

Paso 1: Con otro estudiante, escribe un pequeño diálogo entre dos amigos saludándose y diciéndose adiós. With a partner, write a short dialogue between two friends greeting each other and saying goodbye.


1. Yo: Hola, ¿_________________________?

2. Mi amigo/a: Yo __________ bien. ¿Y ______?

3. Yo: Yo _________________, gracias.

4. Mi amigo/a: Adiós.

5. Yo: _________________.



Paso 2: Act it out with your classmate

Contexto: Imagine that you quickly see your Spanish teacher passing by at a festival


Paso 3: Greet your teacher and say goodbye. Make any necessary changes to account for formality.


1. Yo: Hola, ¿_________________________? 2. El profesor/la profesora: Yo __________ bien. ¿Cómo ___________?

3. Yo: Yo _________________, gracias.

4. El profesor/la profesora: Hasta luego.

5. Yo: Yo _________________.


Paso 4: Pick a role and act it out with your classmate.


Section 2 Introducing ourselves

In this section you will learn how to… goals










“NOS PRESENTAMOS” by Adriana Diaz, The University of Queensland Australia is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

F. Las presentaciones

Las presentaciones: Introductions

Answer the following questions in complete sentences.

¿Cómo te llamas?

¿Cómo se llama? Me llamo

Mi nombre es Soy Mucho gusto, Encantad@ Igualmente,

Bienvenido/a/os/as Te presento a (nombre) Le presento a (nombre) Les presento a (nombre)

Actividad 9: Rellenar el espacio. Read the following dialogues and fill in the blanks with the appropriate phrases from our vocabulary.


In this conversation, two professional acquaintances run into each other. One introduces a colleague to the other.

conversation 1:

Señora García: Buenos días, Señor Hernández.

Señor Hernández: (1.) ¿Cómo está usted?

Señora García: Muy bien, gracias. ¿Y (2.) ?

Señor Hernández: (3.) , gracias. Señora, le presento a mi colega Alonso Sotomayor.

Señora García: (4.) .

Señor Sotomayor: Señora García: Bueno señores, tengo que irme. Adiós. Señor Sotomayor: (5.) .

Señor Hernández: (6.) .

Actividad 10. In this conversation, two students strike up a conversation on a bench after the first day of class.

1.Flor: Hola,


2. Antonia: Hola,



-Antonia: Igualmente.

-Flor: ¿De dónde eres?



-Cuba. ¿Y tú?

-Flor: Soy de Argentina.

-Antonia: ¡Qué bien!


-Flor: ¡Sí! Pues, perdóname, amiga, pero tengo que ir al trabajo.

-Antonia: Vale, nos vemos mañana en clase

Actividad 11 . DNI—el Documento Nacional de Identidad.


Spain, like many nations,

requires all citizens over the age of 14 to carry a national ID card known as the DNI. It is used much like an American driver’s license for proof of identity.

Paso 1— Fill in your personal information to create your own DNI.








Fecha de nacimiento



Documento Nacional de Identidad

Paso 2—una entrevista. Step two—an interview. Use the following questions to interview three classmates about themselves, using a common question: ¿Cuál es?

Audio Video

¿Cuál es tu apellido?

Mi apellido es .

¿Cuál es tu nombre?

Mi nombre es .

¿Cuál es tu nacionalidad?

Mi nacionalidad es .

¿Cuál es tu fecha de nacimiento?

Mi fecha de nacimiento es .

¡A hablar!

Actividad 12. Speed-friending. Introduce yourself to as many classmates as you can in the next five minutes. Learn their names and where they are from, write down what you learn about them, then say goodbye.

Nombre:_____________ Es de ____________

Actividad 13. Las presentaciones. Follow the steps below to practice introducing friends and meeting new people.

Paso 1: Find a partner and introduce yourselves to one another.

Paso 2: Then, find another set of partners. Greet them and introduce your partner to them. Your partner will then introduce you to the other set of partners. Now it is their turn to introduce each other to you and your partner.

Paso 3: Elect a spokesperson for your group. When called upon, the spokesperson will intro- duce each member of the group to your instructor. Your instructor will respond to each member of the group with a pleasantry, and each member of the group will respond in kind.

Section 3: Pronunciation and the alphabet.


Pronunciation is the foundation of spoken language. Mastering pronunciation is essential to building confidence in oral communication. It is very important to practice and master each of the sounds and master their uses. If you cannot pronounce the words correctly, you will not be correctly understood. If you can pronounce the words correctly, you will be able to.

In English, many letters represent several sounds. Sometimes this depends on regional dialects. Sometimes it depends on the other letters in the word. Vowels, for example, may have up to five sounds. In general, this is not the case in Spanish.

In Spanish, phonetics (sounds) are much simpler. There are five vowels: a e i o u (like English, sometimes y). Each vowel has only one sound associated with it. Sometimes vowels have a written accent above them (á é í ó ú). The written accent does not change the world.

The key to your Spanish pronunciation and comprehension is mastery of the vowels.There is only one way to pronounce each of these letters.The name of the vowel is pronounced the same and written the same as the vowel itself.

Vowels/Las vocales: FIND THE LISTENING



“LAS VOCALES” by Adriana Diaz, The University of Queensland Australia is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0


Name of vowel and sound


a (ah) as the “a”in father


e (eh) as the “ay” in say


i (ee) as the “e” in me


o (oh) as the “oa” in oak


u (oo) as the “ue” in Sue


Asociamos los sonidos vocálicos con el significado.

¡Ahhh! = a. DUDA



Ohhh = d. SORPRESA

Uhhh = e. PROBLEMA




The alphabet/ El alfabeto: El alfabeto EL alfabeto https://www.languageguide.org/spanish/alphabet/

The Spanish alphabet is based on the Latin and as such is very similar to the English one. However, there are a few notable differences in the presence of some additional letters. Watch the video about the Spanish Alphabet and then repeat the letters.


A, a




C, c


Ch, chê


D, d


E, e


F, f


G, g


H, h


I, i


J, j


K, k


L, l


Ll, llê


M, m


N, n


Ñ, ñ


O, o


P, p


Q, q


R, r


Rr, rrêê


S, s


T, t


U, u


V, v


W, w

doble ve

X, x


Y, y

I griega

Z, z

****Variaciones: As with any language, regional variations exist within the Spanish language

Some countries call the letter V “uve” instead of “ve”

W can be ve doble, doble ve, uve doble, or doble uve.

Some countries call the double R “erre” and others call it “doble ere”

In some countries, the letter Y is called “ye” instead of “i griega.”

The Y and LL are pronounced like a “shuh” in Argentina and Uruguay

In Spain, the letters Z and “ce” and “ci” make a “thuh” sound instead of the “S” sound

For the letter X there are a few words that make a “huh” sound instead of the KS. They are older words (usually names), like México and Don Quixote.

¿Cómo se escribe . . .? – How is . . . spelled?

Se escribe . . . – It’s spelled . . .

¿Qué quiere decir . . .? – What does . . . mean?

Quiere decir . . . – It means . . .

Actividad 14. Read the following examples to figure out what the questions and answers mean.



¿Cómo se escribe tu nombre?

Se escribe M – A – T – E – O

¿Cómo se escribe el nombre de tu mejor amigo? (your best friend)

Se escribe R – O – B – E – R – T – O.

¿Cómo se escribe el nombre de tu madre?

Se escribe M – A – R – Í – A




Actividad 15: ¿Cómo se escribe? Practice out loud with three classmates using the following questions. Use the listening and the video as examples of how to do the activity.

Listening Video

1. ¿Cómo se escribe tu nombre?

2. ¿Cómo se escribe el nombre de la universidad? 3. ¿Cómo se escribe el nombre de tu madre?

3. ¿Cómo se escribe el nombre de tu padre?

4.¿Cómo se escribe el nombre de tu mejor amigo?

5. ¿Cómo se escribe tu correo electrónico (email)? – How is it written?

In Spanish the @ symbol is called “arroba” , and the dot, it’is called “punto”.

Actividad 16. Dictado:

Write down 5 random words.

Spell the words as a dictation for a classmate to write down.

Now switch roles.


¡A ver! y ¡A hablar!

Actividad 17. You will practice your speaking skills and your ability to introduce yourself to others in Spanish through a video presentation “Todo sobre mí”. You will practice your listening skills by watching a Spanish instructor introduce herself and then by watching and responding to the introductions of two peers. She will then ask you five questions: ¿Cómo te llamas? ¿Cómo se escribe tu nombre? ¿De dónde eres? ¿Cuántas clases tienes?

This activity has three parts.

An observation of the activity modeled by a Spanish instructor

A video recording introducing yourself to your peers

A final video response to two peers’ video posts

“Discussion: Todo sobre mi” by Diamond Wilson, Lumen Learning is licensed under CC BY 4.0


Section 4: Las materias





Las materias/ las asignaturas: Class subjects


Las ciencias-Sciences
imageYo estudio biología.

La química-Chemistry

La física-Physics

La geografía-Geography

La biología-Biology

Las humanidades-Humanitiesimage


La literatura-Literature imageMe gusta la música clásica.

La composición-Composition

El drama-Drama

La música-Music

La historia-History

El arte-Art

Las comunicaciones-Communications

La sociología-Sociology


Las lenguas extranjeras-World languages

imageimage Mi amiga Susana estudia japonés.

El inglés-English

El español-Spanish

El ruso-Russian

El chino-Chinese

El japonés-Japanese




Otras materias- Other class subjects

Las matemáticas-Mathematics

La educación-Education

La psicología-Psychology

La filosofía-Philosophy

La computación-Computer sciencesimageNo me gustan las matemáticas.

La administración de empresas-Business Administration



Expresiones de estudiantes:Expresiones de profesores:

Más despacio, por favor Estamos en la página (#)

¿Cómo se dice? Dime

¿Cómo se escribe? Entonces

No entiendo¿Entiendes/ entienden?

Tengo una preguntaPero


Profesor(a), ¿Podría repetirlo, por favor?Porque sí

Levanta/Levanten la mano

Gracias DisculpeSu atención, por favor


Actividad 18. Asociaciones.


What class subject(s) do you associate with the following well-known people?


1.Frida Khalo____________________________

2.Albert Einstein_________________________


4.George Washington_____________________



7.Sigmund Freud_________________________






Actividad 19. Likes and Dislikes. Underline whether you like or dislike the following class subjects, then interview a classmate to discover interests that you have in common.

¿Te gusta el arte? Sí, me gusta el arteNo, no me gusta el arte.

¿Te gusta la historia? Sí, me gusta la historiaNo, no me gusta la historia.

¿Te gusta la psicología? Sí, me gusta la psicologíaNo, no me gusta la psicología.

¿Te gustan las ciencias? Sí, me gustan las cienciasNo, no me gustan las ciencias.

¿Te gustan las matemáticas? Sí, me gustan las matemáticas….No, no me gustan las matemáticas.

¿Te gustan las lenguas extranjeras? Sí, me gustan las lenguas extranjerasNo, no me

gustan las lenguas extranjeras.

Make up a rule to explain when to use “gusta” and when to use “gustan”:


¡A hablar!

Actividad 20. Preguntas personales.


Contexto: Answer the following questions about your classes and interests. Then, use these questions to guide a conversation with a partner.


¿Qué estudias? Yo estudio…

¿Qué clases tienes este trimestre? Yo tengo…

¿Cuáles son tus materias favoritas? Mis materias favoritas son…


¡Actividad 21. El horario de Ana.

Contexto: You and a partner are doing an internship in the office of the registrar and have been tasked with planning Ana’s class schedule for next term.


Paso 1:

Estudiante A has the school’s course schedule (Sheet B, page 425) and can see what classes are being offered and when.


Estudiante B has Ana’s degree plan (Sheet A, page 424). You can see which classes she has already taken and which classes she still needs.


Estudiante A will propose a class for Ana using “Hay.”


Estudiante B will determine whether or not she needs that class and respond using “Ana necesita…” or “Ana no necesita…”


Estudiante A will then propose another class, and the process will continue until Ana is scheduled to take all of the classes she needs to complete her degree.




Estudiante A: Hay una clase de drama. Estudiante B: Ana no necesita una clase de drama



Paso 2: After you and your partner determine which classes will work for Ana’s schedule, fill out Ana’s weekly schedule below using the days and times found on Sheet A











10 am

10 am

10 am

10 am

10 am

11 am

11 am

11 am

11 am

11 am

12 pm

12 pm

12 pm

12 pm

12 pm




Section 5: In this section, we will learn and practice to express what is there in my classroom

Hay means “there is” and “there are.” Note that this verb form is both singular and plural. Place “no” before the verb to negate it. Study the following:




What is there in the classroom?

¿Qué hay en el salón de clase?

There are some students.

Hay unos estudiantes.

How many students are there?

¿Cuántos estudiantes hay?

There are twenty five students.

Hay veinticinco estudiantes.

Are there two professors?

¿Hay dos profesores?

No, there are not (two professors).

No, no hay (dos profesores).

Is there a window in the classroom?

¿Hay una ventana en el salón de clase?

Yes, there are two.

Sí, hay dos.




En la mochila

En la clase

En el salón de clase

el diccionario (dictionary)

el estudiante (student, m)

la luz (light)



la computadora (computer)

la estudiante (student, f)

el mapa (map)

la calculadora (calculator)

el reloj (clock)

la pizarra (chalkboard)

el teléfono (telephone)

el proyector (projector)

la pizarra (whiteboard)

el libro (book)

la mesa (table)

la tiza (chalk)

el marcador (marker)

el pupitre (student’s desk)

la puerta (door)

el cuaderno (notebook)

la pared (wall)

la silla (chair)

el bolígrafo (pen)

la ventana (window)

la basura (trash)

la carpeta (folder/ binder)

el profesor (teacher m)


el papel (paper)

la profesora (teacher f)









Actividad 22:¿Qué hay en el salón de clase?: identify each object and then write, in Spanish, the vocabulary word that corresponds to the number in the picture.

En la mochila del estudiante (in the student’s backpack) image

1Hay ___________ (backpack)

2. Hay____________ (dictionary)

3. Hay_____________ (computer)

4. Hay_____________ (calculator)

5.Hay _____________ (telephone)

6. Hay_____________ (book)

7.Hay ____________ (marker)

8. Hay____________ (notebook)

9. Hay____________ (pen)

10. Hay___________ (pencil)

11. Hay___________ (folder/ binder)

12. Hay ____________(paper)

13.Hay _____________ (desk)

Actividad 23. En la clase: Match the number with the person or object from the classroom.


_______ la pared (wall)

_______ el estudiante (student, m)

_______ la estudiante (student, f)

_______ el reloj (clock)

_______ el proyector (projector)

_______ la mesa (table)

_______ el pupitre (student’s desk)

_______ la cortina (curtain)

_______ la ventana (window)

_______ el profesor, la profesora(professor, m, f)

¡A escuchar!

Actividad 24. Listen to the words your teacher is going to say and write the words as you hear them.

1. ____________________________

2. ____________________________

3. ____________________________

4. ____________________________

5. ____________________________

6. ____________________________

7. ____________________________

Actividad 25. ¿Qué hay aquí?

You are describing your room and classroom to a friend over the phone. Choose the option that appropriately completes each statement with hay or no hay.

En mi cuarto, hay…

a.libros y cuadernos

b.una puerta

c. a y b son correctas.

En el salón de clase, hay…

a. una puerta

b. veintitrés estudiantes

c. a y b son correctas.

En mi mochila, hay…

a.un cuaderno

b.un teléfono celular

c. a y b son correctas.

En la pizarra hay…


b.una ventana


En la mesa hay…

a.un libro

b.una puerta

c.una pared

En la pared hay…

a.una ventana

b.una silla

c. a y b son correctas.

En el escritorio hay…

a. un diccionario

b.una pizarra

c. el salón de clase

En la puerta hay…

a.un hombre

b.una silla

c. un libro

En mi salón de clase no hay…

a.cinco profesores

b.una pizarra

c.una puerta

En la ventana no hay…

a.una silla

b.una mesa

c. a y b son correcta

¡A escribir!

Actividad 26: List five classroom items that are currently in your backpack and five classroom items that are not in your backpack.

En mi mochila tengo…

• _____________________ • _____________________ • _____________________ • _____________________ • _____________________

En mi mochila no tengo…

• _____________________ • _____________________ • _____________________ • _____________________ • _____________________


Section 6: Identify the definite and indefinite articles for each noun below.

Definite and indefinite articles (Gender & number)

In Spanish, all nouns have grammatical “gender.” Nouns may be “masculine” or “feminine,”but unless it is a living, breathing creature, grammatical gender is totally arbitrary. When we refer to “number,” we are talking about whether the noun is singular or plural.

Los artículos definidos: Definite articles are used when you have a specific item in mind.

The English equivalent is “The.”

In Spanish, there is a “the” for each Gender/ Number combination:

El – el profesor Masculine & Singular)

La – la profesora (Feminine & Singular)

Los – los animales (Masculine & Plural)

Las – las manzana (Feminine plural)

Los artículos indefinidos:Indefinite articles are used when you do not have a specific item in mind.

The English equivalent is “a” for singular nouns and “some” for plural nouns.

In Spanish, there is an indefinite article or each Gender/Number Combination

Un – un libro (Masculine & Singular)

Una – una chica. (Feminine & Singular)

Unos – unos amigos. (Masculine & Plural)

Unas – unas galletas (Feminine & Plural)image

Voy a la biblioteca porque quiero encontrar un buen libro.

I am going to the library because I want to find a good book.


Voy a la frutería porque necesito unas manzanas.

I am going to the fruit stand because I need some apples.


Los patrones: patterns

A language is a system of patterns, and once we recognize a pattern, we can use it to our advantage. Using patterns to help determine the gender of nouns is a good example of this.

Of course, there are always exceptions to the “rule,” so when you encounter a word that deviates from the pattern, spend extra time studying it.

Since we do not have gendered nouns in English, it is easy to underestimate the importance of this concept in Spanish. When learning new nouns, always practice them with their gender.

Watch the video for a more detailed grammar explanation.

All nouns in Spanish are either masculine or feminine and singular or plural in number. The gender of nouns can usually be determined by its ending, however, there are always exceptions to any rule that you will have to memorize. Some of the most common exceptions appear at the bottom of this page.

Describing People and Pets


La señora, la mujer, la chica, la estudiante, la perra*, la gata*

*People who know that their pet is female will use the feminine form. If the sex of a pet or animal is unknown, the masculine form is typically used.


El señor, el hombre, el chico, el estudiante, el perro, el gato

Transgender and non-binary individuals

For individuals who identify as male or female, always use the grammatical gender that corresponds to a person’s identity. To ask someone what their pronouns are, ask: “¿Cuál es su pronombre?” To respond, answer: “Mi pronombre es.” Fill in the blank with él (he), ella (she), or another pronoun such as elle (non-gendered, singular). With that said, non-binary pronouns such as elle are newly emergent and may not be widely used or understood.

Spanish, as a highly gendered language, has not yet adapted systematically to account for non-binary identities. There is a movement to use terms such as Latinx, although the “x” is not currently used in sentence structure and is not yet widely used outside of the United States. The use of –e endings instead of –o or –a endings on gendered nouns, articles, and adjectives has also emerged from Spanish-speaking communities. While there currently is not a unanimously accepted solution for how to approach gender agreement for non-binary individuals, language evolves alongside the communities that use it to express their life experiences, and this is an ongoing conversation. If you are non-binary, you may choose to initiate a conversation with your instructor to discuss ways that you can use the language to best describe yourself.



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Sandbox: Interactive OER for Dual Enrollment Copyright © by LOUIS: The Louisiana Library Network is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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