19. Describe the process that results in the formation of a tetrad.
20. Explain how the random alignment of homologous chromosomes during metaphase I contributes to the variation in gametes produced by meiosis.
21. What is the function of the fused kinetochore found on sister chromatids in prometaphase I?
22. In a comparison of the stages of meiosis to the stages of mitosis, which stages are unique to meiosis and which stages have the same events in both meiosis and mitosis?
23. Why would an individual with a mutation that prevented the formation of recombination nodules be considered less fit than other members of its species?
24. Does crossing over occur during prophase II? From an evolutionary perspective, why is this advantageous?
25. List and briefly describe the three processes that lead to variation in offspring with the same parents.
26. Animals and plants both have diploid and haploid cells. How does the animal life cycle differ from the alternation of generations exhibited by plants?
27. Explain why sexual reproduction is beneficial to a population but can be detrimental to an individual offspring.
28. How does the role of meiosis in gamete production differ between organisms with a diploid-dominant life cycle and organisms with an alternation of generations life cycle?
29. How do organisms with haploid-dominant life cycles ensure continued genetic diversification in offspring without using a meiotic process to make gametes?