39 Review Questions

4. When viewing a specimen through a light microscope, scientists use ________ to distinguish the individual components of cells.

  1. a beam of electrons
  2. radioactive isotopes
  3. special stains
  4. high temperatures

5. The ________ is the basic unit of life.

  1. organism
  2. cell
  3. tissue
  4. organ

6. Prokaryotes depend on ________ to obtain some materials and to get rid of wastes.

  1. ribosomes
  2. flagella
  3. cell division
  4. diffusion

7. Bacteria that lack fimbriae are less likely to ________.

  1. adhere to cell surfaces
  2. swim through bodily fluids
  3. synthesize proteins
  4. retain the ability to divide

8. Which of the following organisms is a prokaryote?

  1. amoeba
  2. influenza A virus
  3. charophyte algae
  4. E. coli

9. Which of the following is surrounded by two phospholipid bilayers?

  1. the ribosomes
  2. the vesicles
  3. the cytoplasm
  4. the nucleoplasm

10. Peroxisomes got their name because hydrogen peroxide is:

  1. used in their detoxification reactions
  2. produced during their oxidation reactions
  3. incorporated into their membranes
  4. a cofactor for the organelles’ enzymes

11. In plant cells, the function of the lysosomes is carried out by __________.

  1. vacuoles
  2. peroxisomes
  3. ribosomes
  4. nuclei

12. Which of the following is both in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?

  1. nucleus
  2. mitochondrion
  3. vacuole
  4. ribosomes

13. Tay-Sachs disease is a genetic disorder that results in the destruction of neurons due to a buildup of sphingolipids in the cells. Which organelle is malfunctioning in Tay-Sachs?

  1. lysosome
  2. endoplasmic reticulum
  3. peroxisome
  4. mitochondria

14. Which of the following is not a component of the endomembrane system?

  1. mitochondrion
  2. Golgi apparatus
  3. endoplasmic reticulum
  4. lysosome

15. The process by which a cell engulfs a foreign particle is known as:

  1. endosymbiosis
  2. phagocytosis
  3. hydrolysis
  4. membrane synthesis

16. Which of the following is most likely to have the greatest concentration of smooth endoplasmic reticulum?

  1. a cell that secretes enzymes
  2. a cell that destroys pathogens
  3. a cell that makes steroid hormones
  4. a cell that engages in photosynthesis

17. Which of the following sequences correctly lists in order the steps involved in the incorporation of a proteinaceous molecule within a cell?

  1. protein synthesis of the protein on the ribosome; modification in the Golgi apparatus; packaging in the endoplasmic reticulum; tagging in the vesicle
  2. synthesis of the protein on the lysosome; tagging in the Golgi; packaging in the vesicle; distribution in the endoplasmic reticulum
  3. synthesis of the protein on the ribosome; modification in the endoplasmic reticulum; tagging in the Golgi; distribution via the vesicle
  4. synthesis of the protein on the lysosome; packaging in the vesicle; distribution via the Golgi; tagging in the endoplasmic reticulum

18. Congenital disorders of glycosylation are a growing class of rare diseases. Which organelle would be most commonly involved in the glycoprotein disorder portion of the group?

  1. RER
  2. ribosomes
  3. endosomes
  4. Golgi apparatus

19. Which of the following have the ability to disassemble and reform quickly?

  1. microfilaments and intermediate filaments
  2. microfilaments and microtubules
  3. intermediate filaments and microtubules
  4. only intermediate filaments

20. Which of the following do not play a role in intracellular movement?

  1. microfilaments and intermediate filaments
  2. microfilaments and microtubules
  3. intermediate filaments and microtubules
  4. only intermediate filaments

21. In humans, _____ are used to move a cell within its environment, while _____ are used to move the environment relative to the cell.

  1. cilia; pseudopodia
  2. flagella; cilia
  3. microtubules; flagella
  4. microfilaments; microtubules

22. Which of the following are only in plant cells?

  1. gap junctions
  2. desmosomes
  3. plasmodesmata
  4. tight junctions

23. The key components of desmosomes are cadherins and __________.

  1. actin
  2. microfilaments
  3. intermediate filaments
  4. microtubules

24. Diseased animal cells may produce molecules that activate death cascades to kill the cells in a controlled manner. Why would neighboring healthy cells also die?

  1. The death molecule is passed through desmosomes.
  2. The death molecule is passed through plasmodesmata.
  3. The death molecule disrupts the extracellular matrix.
  4. The death molecule passes through gap junctions.

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