Diseases and Disorders

Disease and Disorder Terms Built from Known Word Parts

aphagia: lack of ability to swallow

appendicitis: inflammation of the appendix

cholangioma: tumor of a bile duct

cholecystitis: inflammation of the gallbladder

choledocholithiasis: condition of having gallstones in the common bile duct

cholelithiasis: condition of having gallstones

colitis: inflammation of the colon

diverticulitis: inflammation of one or more diverticula

diverticulosis: the condition of having diverticulitis

dyspepsia: difficult or painful digestion

dysphagia: difficulty swallowing

enteropathy: disease of the intestines

esophagitis: inflammation of the esophagus

gastritis: inflammation of the stomach

gastroenteritis: inflammation of the stomach and intestines

gastroenterocolitis: inflammation of the stomach and intestines, including the colon

gastromalacia: softening of the stomach

gingivitis: inflammation of the gums

glossitis: inflammation of the tongue

hepatitis: inflammation of the liver

hepatoma: benign tumor of the liver

hepatocarcinoma: malignant tumor of the liver

hepatomegaly: enlargement of the liver

palatitis: inflammation of the palate

pancreatitis: inflammation of the pancreas

peritonitis: inflammation of the peritoneum

polyposis: condition of having polyps

proctoptosis: drooping/falling of the rectum

rectocele: herniation of the rectum

sialolith: stone in a salivary gland or duct

steatohepatitis: inflammation of the liver with fatty tissue present

steatorrhea: discharge of undigested/partially digested fats

steatosis: abnormal condition of fat retention within a cell or organ

uvulitis: inflammation of the uvula

Disease and Disorder Terms Not Built from Known Word Parts

adhesion: fibrous bands of scar tissue that form between internal organs and tissues, joining them together abnormally

ascites: abnormal fluid collection within the abdominal cavity

celiac sprue (celiac disease): disease that occurs due to an immune reaction to gluten in the intestines; can lead to malabsorption and damage to the intestinal lining

cirrhosis: chronic liver disease that leads to destruction of hepatocytes and formation of scar tissue

cleft lip: congenital cleft in lip

cleft palate: congenital cleft in either the hard palate, soft palate, or both

Crohn disease: chronic disease of the GI tract that leads to cobblestone ulcerations and formation of scar tissue

colon cancer: malignant tumor of the colon

diarrhea: liquid or semisolid feces

dysentery: large amount of diarrhea containing blood or mucus due to damage to the intestinal lining

emesis: vomit

emetic: substance that induces vomiting

esophageal cancer: malignant tumor of the esophagus

feces: solid/semisolid waste from digestive system

flatus: intestinal gas

gastroesophageal reflux disease (acid reflux/heartburn): disease featuring pain/discomfort caused by acid being ejected from the stomach into the esophagus

hematemesis: blood in vomit

hematochezia: visible blood in stool

hemochromatosis: genetic disease that leads to increased absorption of iron in the GI tract, overproduction of red blood cells, and deposition of iron within various body tissues

hemorrhoid: varicose vein in the rectum and/or anal canal

ileus: lack of effective peristalsis in the intestines, which can lead to obstruction

intussusception: telescoping of the intestines, which can lead to obstruction

irritable bowel syndrome: disturbances in bowel function not due to another diagnosable bowel disease; can lead to periods of constipation, diarrhea, or both

melena: black, tarry stool that contains digested blood from the upper GI tract

nausea: feeling of the urge to vomit

obesity: excess body fat and increase in body weight in which BMI is over 30

peptic ulcer: erosion of the mucous membrane of the stomach, leading to pain/discomfort

polyp: tumorlike outgrowth of a mucous membrane; usually benign, but may become cancerous if not removed

reflux: GI fluids being ejected backward

stoma: surgical opening between an organ and the outside of the body, between body structures, or between intestinal portions

ulcerative colitis: chronic disease of the large intestine with inflammation of the colon and the formation of ulcers, which can cause bloody diarrhea

volvulus: twisting or kinking of an intestine, which can lead to an obstruction


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Medical Terminology: An Interactive Approach Copyright © 2022 by LOUIS: The Louisiana Library Network is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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