Diseases and Disorders

Disease and Disorder Terms Built from Word Parts

amnesia: without memory; a sudden loss of memory

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: hardening and breakdown of neurons supplying skeletal muscles causing muscle wasting

aphasia: condition of without speaking; inability to speak

astrocytoma: tumor of the star-shaped glial cells; can be in the brain or spinal cord

cephalalgia: pain in the head

cerebellitis: inflammation of the cerebellum

cerebral thrombosis: abnormal condition of blood clotting in the brain

cerebrovascular accident: a clot or bleeding in the vessels of the brain; a stroke

dementia: impairment in thinking; can affect memory, personality, reasoning, and processing

duritis: inflammation of the dura mater

dysphasia: difficult speech; impaired ability to speak

encephalitis: inflammation of the brain

encephalomalacia: softening of the brain

encephalomyeloradiculitis: inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and nerve roots

encephalosclerosis: hardening of the brain tissue

epidural hematoma: collection of blood between the skull and the dura mater

gangliitis: inflammation of the ganglion

glioblastoma: tumor of developing glial tissue

glioma: tumor of the glial tissue

hemiparesis: partial paralysis of one side of the body

hemiplegia: paralysis of one side of the body

hydrocephalus: “water on the brain”; excessive cerebrospinal fluid in and around the brain

hyperesthesia: excessive sensitivity to stimuli

ictal: pertaining to between seizures

interictal: pertaining to during a seizure

meningioma: noncancerous tumor of the meninges

meningitis: inflammation of the meninges

meningomyelocele: protrusion of the meninges and spinal cord

microcephaly: small head; congenital condition where the brain and skull are too small

monoparesis: mild paralysis of one (limb)

mononeuropathy: disease affecting a single nerve

multiple sclerosis: disease of plaques (hardened areas) in the brain and demyelination

myelitis: inflammation of the spinal cord

myelomalacia: softening of the spinal cord

myelomeningocele: protrusion (herniation) of the membranes of the brain or spinal cord through a hole in the skull or vertebrae

neuralgia: pain in a nerve

neuritis: inflammation of the nerves

neuroarthropathy: disease of the nerves and joints

neuroma: tumor of nerve tissue

neuropathy: disease of nerve fibers

panplegia: total paralysis

paralysis: destruction of nerves in the spinal cord; loss of muscle functions

paraplegia: paralysis of the lower extremities and often the lower body trunk

paresthesia: loss of sensation, numbness

plegia: paralysis

polyneuritis: inflammation of many nerves

polyneuropathy: disease of many nerves

poliomyelitis: inflammation of the gray matter in the spinal cord and brain

preictal: occurs before a seizure or attack

psychopathy: disease of the mind

psychosis: abnormal condition of the mind

psychosomatic: pertaining to the mind and body

psychotic disorder: a disorder pertaining to the mind

quadriplegia: paralysis of four limbs; can also include the trunk

radicotomy: incision into a nerve root

radiculitis: inflammation of the nerve roots

radiculopathy: disease of the nerve roots

ryizomeningomyelitis: inflammation of the nerve root, meninges, and spinal cord

subarachnoid hemorrhage: bleeding into the area between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater

subdural hematoma: blood-filled tumor pertaining to below the dura mater

Disease and Disorder Terms Not Built from Word Parts

Alzheimer’s disease: a dementia disorder caused by plaques and degeneration of the myelin in the central nervous system

Guillain-Barre syndrome: disease causing demyelination of the peripheral nerves

Parkinson’s disease: central nervous system disease causing dopamine deficiency


Icon for the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

Medical Terminology: An Interactive Approach Copyright © 2022 by LOUIS: The Louisiana Library Network is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

Share This Book