Medical, Surgical, & Viewing Terms and Abbreviations

Medical Careers & Professional Terminology

Eye Terms

ophthalmologist: physician who can diagnose, treat, and manage eye diseases

ophthalmology: study of the eye

optician: medical specialist who fills prescriptions for lenses

optometrist: health professional who prescribes corrective lenses

optometry: the measurement of visual acuity

Ear Terms

audiologist: a medical specialist who studies hearing and hearing disorders

audiology: study of hearing

otologist: physician who diagnoses and treats ear diseases

otology: study of ear diseases

otorhinolaryngologist: physician who diagnoses and treats diseases and disorders of the ears, nose, and throat

Imaging/Audiology Techniques/Procedures for the Organ System

Eye Techniques/Procedures

keratometer: instrument used to measure the curvature of the eye

miotic: an agent that causes the pupil to constrict

mydriatic: an agent that causes the pupil to dilate

ophthalmoscope: instrument used to view the eye

ophthalmoscopy: visual exam of the eye

optometry: measuring vision

pupillometer: instrument that measures pupil diameter

pupilloscope: instrument used for visual examination of the pupil

retinoscopy: process of viewing the retina

tonometer: instrument that measures intraocular pressure

tonometry: the measurement of intraocular pressure

Ear Techniques/Procedures

audiogram: graphic record of hearing

audiometry: the process of measuring hearing

electrocochleography: process of recording the electrical activity in the cochlea

otoscope: instrument used to visually examine the ear

otoscopy: the process of visual examination of the ear

tympanometer: instrument used to measure the middle ear

tympanometry: measurement of the tympanic membrane

Medical and Surgical Techniques/Procedures Used for the Organ System

Eye Techniques/Procedures

blepharoplasty: surgical repair of eyelid

cryoretinopexy: surgical fixation of the retina using extreme cold

dacryocystorhinostomy: creation of an artificial opening between the lacrimal sac and the nose (to restore drainage)

enucleation: surgical removal of an eyeball

intraocular lens: an artificial lens implanted in the eye during cataract surgery

iridectomy: excision of part of an iris

iridotomy: incision into the iris

keratoplasty: surgical repair of the cornea

LASIK (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis): reshaping the cornea with a laser to correct vision problems

phacoemulsification: removal of a cataract with an ultrasonic needle probe

photorefractive keratectomy: using a laser to flatten the cornea to correct nearsightedness

scleral buckling: surgical procedure to repair a detached retina

sclerotomy: incision into the sclera

trabeculectomy: surgical creation of a drain to reduce intraocular pressure in glaucoma

vitrectomy: surgical removal of all or part of the vitreous humor

Ear Techniques/Procedures

cochlear implant: surgically implanted device that partially restores hearing

labyrinthectomy: excision of the inner ear (labyrinth)

mastoidectomy: excision of the air cells of the mastoid process

mastoidotomy: incision into the mastoid process

myringoplasty: surgical repair of the tympanic membrane

myringotomy: incision in the tympanic membrane

stapedectomy: excision of the stapes bone (to be replaced with a prosthetic bone)

tympanoplasty: surgical repair of the eardrum and ossicles

Abbreviations Commonly Used with the Organ System

Eye Abbreviations

ARMD: age-related macular degeneration

Ast: astigmatism

Em: emmetropia

IOL: intraocular lens

IOP: intraocular pressure

LASIK: laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis

Ophth: ophthalmology

PHACO: phacoemulsification

PRK: photorefractive keratectomy

VA: visual acuity

Ear Abbreviations

AOM: acute otitis media

ENT: ears, nose, throat

EENT: eyes, ears, nose, and throat

OM: otitis media

Medical Terms Practice

For each card, click the speaker icon to hear the correct pronunciation of the listed term. Practice saying the term to yourself, then attempt to define the term from memory. Click “Turn” to flip the card and see the definition. Use the right and left arrows to toggle through the cards in each set.


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Medical Terminology: An Interactive Approach Copyright © 2022 by LOUIS: The Louisiana Library Network is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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