Diseases and Disorders

Disease and Disorder Terms Built from Word Parts

ankylosis: abnormal condition of stiffness (often referring to fusion of a joint, such as the result of chronic rheumatoid arthritis)

arthritis: inflammation of the joint

bursitis: inflammation of the bursae

chondromalacia: softening of cartilage

chondrosarcoma: malignant tumor of cartilage

cranioschisis: fissure (split) of the cranium (congenital)

discitis: inflammation of the disc

fasciitis: inflammation of the fascia (connective tissue enclosing and separating muscle layers)

fibromyalgia: pain in the fibrous tissues and muscles (a common condition characterized by widespread pain and stiffness of muscles, fatigue, and disturbed sleep)

kyphosis: abnormal condition of a hump (in the thoracic spine; also called swayback)

lordosis: abnormal condition of bending forward (in the lumbar spine; also called swayback)

meniscitis: inflammation of the meniscus

myasthenia: muscle weakness

myeloma: tumor of the bone marrow (malignant)

osteitis: inflammation of the bone

osteoarthritis: inflammation of the bone and joint

osteochondritis: inflammation of the bone and cartilage

osteochondroma: tumor composed of bone and cartilage (benign)

osteomalacia: softening of the bone

osteomyelitis: inflammation of the bone and marrow (caused by bacterial infection)

osteonecrosis: abnormal condition of bone death (due to lack of blood supply)

osteopenia: abnormal reduction of bone mass (caused by inadequate replacement of bone lost to normal bone lysis and can lead to osteoporosis)

osteopetrosis: abnormal condition of stonelike bones (very dense bones caused by defective resorption of bone)

osteosarcoma: malignant tumor of the bone

polymyositis: inflammation of many muscles

rachischisis: fissure (split) of the vertebral column (congenital; also called spina bifida)

rhabdomyolysis: dissolution of striated muscle (caused by trauma, extreme exertion, or drug toxicity; in severe cases, renal failure can result)

sarcopenia: abnormal reduction of connective tissue (such as a loss of skeletal muscle mass in the elderly)

scoliosis: abnormal condition of (lateral) curved spine

spondyloarthritis: inflammation of the vertebral joints (also called spondyloarthropathy)

spondylosis: abnormal condition of the vertebrae (a general term used to describe changes to the spine from osteoarthritis or ankylosis)

synoviosarcoma: malignant tumor of the synovial membrane

tendinitis: inflammation of the tendon (also spelled tendonitis)

tenosynovitis: inflammation of the tendon and synovial membrane

Disease and Disorder Terms Not Built from Word Parts

ankylosing spondylitis: form of arthritis that first affects the spine and adjacent structures and that, as it progresses, causes a forward bend of the spine (also called Strümpell-Marie arthritis or disease or rheumatoid spondylitis)

bunion: abnormal prominence of the joint at the base of the great toe, the metatarsal phalangeal joint. It is a common problem, often hereditary or caused by poorly fitted shoes (also called hallux valgus).

carpal tunnel syndrome: common nerve entrapment disorder of the wrist caused by compression of the median nerve; symptoms include pain and tingling in portions of the hand and fingers

compartment syndrome: painful condition caused by increased pressure within a muscle that can lead to ischemia; acute compartment syndrome is a medical emergency and is caused by severe injury

dislocation: displacement of bones in a joint from their normal alignment (also called luxation)

exostosis: abnormal benign growth on the surface of a bone (also called spur)

fracture: broken bone

ganglion cyst: collection of jellylike fluid forming a benign mass arising from joints, most commonly appearing in the wrist, hand, and ankle

gout: disease in which an excessive amount of uric acid in the blood causes sodium urate crystals (tophi) to be deposited in the joints, producing arthritis. The great toe is frequently affected.

herniated disk: rupture of the intervertebral disk cartilage, which allows the contents to protrude through it, putting pressure on the spinal nerve roots (also called slipped disk, ruptured disk, herniated intervertebral disk, or herniated nucleus pulposus [HNP])

Lyme disease: infection caused by a bite from a deer tick infected with Borrelia burgdorferi. This bacterium provokes an immune response in the body, the symptoms of which can mimic several musculoskeletal diseases. Patients may experience fever, headache, and joint pain. A rash (target lesion) may initially arise at the site of the tick bite.

muscular dystrophy: group of hereditary diseases characterized by degeneration of muscle and weakness

myasthenia gravis: chronic disease characterized by muscle weakness and thought to be caused by a defect in the transmission of impulses from nerve to muscle cell. The face, larynx, and throat are frequently affected; no true paralysis of the muscles exists.

osteoporosis: abnormal loss of bone density that may lead to an increase in fractures of the ribs, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, hips, and wrists after slight trauma (occurs predominantly in postmenopausal women)

plantar fasciitis: inflammation of the connective tissue of the sole of the foot (plantar fascia) due to repetitive injury; common cause of heel pain

repetitive strain injury: cumulative damage to joint, muscle, or other tissue caused by movements performed over and over again; characterized by pain, swelling, numbness, and lack of strength and flexibility, most commonly affecting the hands, wrists, elbows, and shoulders

rheumatoid arthritis: chronic systemic disease characterized by autoimmune inflammatory changes in the connective tissue throughout the body

rotator cuff disease: damage to one or more of the four tendons stabilizing the shoulder joint due to injury or degeneration; symptoms may include pain, limited range of motion, and muscle weakness

spinal stenosis: narrowing of the spinal canal with compression of nerve roots. The condition is either congenital or due to spinal degeneration. Symptoms are pain radiating to the thigh or lower legs and numbness or tingling in the lower extremities.

spondylolisthesis: forward slipping of one vertebra over another

sprain: abnormal stretching or tearing of a ligament that supports a joint

strain: abnormal stretching and tearing of a muscle or tendon

subluxation: partial dislocation of bones and joints

tarsal tunnel syndrome: painful foot disorder caused by compression of the posterior tibial nerve as it passes through the ankle


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Medical Terminology: An Interactive Approach Copyright © 2022 by LOUIS: The Louisiana Library Network is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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