Urinary System

Learning Objectives

When completing this chapter, the learner will be able to do the following:

  • Identify the anatomy of the urinary system
  • Describe the main functions of the urinary system
  • Spell and pronounce the urinary system medical terms and use correct abbreviations
  • Identify the medical specialties associated with the urinary system
  • Explore common diseases, disorders, and procedures related to the urinary system


The urinary system has roles you may be well aware of. Cleansing the blood and ridding the body of wastes probably come to mind. However, there are additional, equally important functions played by the system. Take, for example, the regulation of pH, a function shared with the lungs and the buffers in the blood. Additionally, the regulation of blood pressure is a role shared with the heart and blood vessels. What about regulating the concentration of solutes in the blood? Did you know that the kidney is important in determining the concentration of red blood cells? Eighty-five percent of the erythropoietin (EPO) produced to stimulate red blood cell production is produced in the kidneys. The kidneys also perform the final synthesis step of vitamin D production, converting calcidiol to calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D. If the kidneys fail, these functions are compromised or lost altogether, with devastating effects on homeostasis.

Watch this video:

Media 13.1. Urinary System, Part 1: Crash Course A&P #38 [Online video]. Copyright 2015 by CrashCourse.


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Medical Terminology: An Interactive Approach Copyright © 2022 by LOUIS: The Louisiana Library Network is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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